Body constitution and dysmenorrhea: a study on university students in Malaysia
- 8 Downloads
Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic condition among women. The relation between the menstrual pain and the Chinese medicine body constitution had never being studied in Malaysia, especially among students in higher education institute. In this study, a survey was carried out to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of dysmenorrhea among female students and the Chinese medicine body constitution. A cross-sectional descriptive was conducted on 201 female students. The information were obtained via questionnaires. The result analysis indicated 80% of the respondents experienced dysmenorrhea, with 79.6% of them had biased constitutions. The top three biased constitutions in the dysmenorrhea group were qi deficiency constitution, qi stagnation constitution, and yin deficiency constitution. Through this study, the relation between dysmenorrhea and the biased Chinese medicine body constitution was confirmed.
KeywordsDysmenorrhea Menstruation Chinese medicine constitution Healthcare
Authors wish to express their gratitude to Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, INTI International University (Traditional Chinese Medicine Programme) for funding and supporting this project.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by University Ethics Committee and Research Approval Committee, INTI International University. All the respondents were acknowledged that the results of this study might be published for non-profit or educational purposes.
Conflict of interest
This manuscript described has not been published before; not under consideration for publication anywhere else; and has been approved by all co-authors.
- Coco AS (1999) Primary dysmenorrhea. Am Fam Phys 60:489–496Google Scholar
- Gu Y (2014) Tongjing Chengdu yu Zhongyi Tizhi Fenbu ji Xiangguan Yinsu Fenxi [The degree of Dysmenorrhea and Constitutional distribution of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Related Factors]. Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, ChengduGoogle Scholar
- Sabaratnam A, Sivanesaratnam V, Alokendu C, Pratap K (2011) Essentials of gynecology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Tian DH (2011) Huangdi Neijing Shuwen Xiaozhu. Ren Min Jun Yi Chu Ban She, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Wang Q (2009) Zhong yi ti zhi xue 2008 [The Constitution of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2008], 1st edn. Renmin weisheng chuban she, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Wang RL, Wang Q (2008) Zhongyi tizhi xue zai shengzhi yixue zhong de yingyong [The practicality of Chinese medicine constitution in reproductive medicine]. 中医研究 21:2–4Google Scholar
- Zhang YZ (2007) Zhongyi fuke xue [Gynecology of Chinese Medicine]. Zhongguo Zhongyiyao Chuban She, BeijingGoogle Scholar