Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of methanolic extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves in rat brain
- 40 Downloads
The aim of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of methanolic extract of Cinnamomum camphora leaves (MECC) in albino wistar rats against maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) models. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in the brains after completion of the anticonvulsant studies. MECC (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) exhibited anticonvulsant activity as indicated by significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) reduction in the duration of hind limb tonic extensor phase in MES induced seizure model and significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) increased the time of onset of clonic convulsion, decreased the duration of seizures, increased the % protection and decreased the percent mortality in a dose dependent manner. MECC (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) exhibited neuroprotective activity as indicated by significant reduction in MDA levels, AChE activity and increased GSH level also in a dose dependent manner. These results indicate that MECC may exert anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects which may be attributed to the increase in the level of GABA, inhibition of AChE and inflammation and antioxidant activity in the brain.
KeywordsAnticonvulsant Neuroprotective MES PTZ AChE Oxidative stress parameters
The authors are thankful to Hygia Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Lucknow, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out this research. Authors would also like to thank National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India for plant authentication and Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India for providing animals.
Compliance with ethical standards
All animal experiments were approved by Animal Services Division of Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India (1087/07/CPCSEA).
Conflict of interest
The authors report no declaration of interest.
- Chelliah DA (2008) Biological activity prediction of an ethno medicinal plant Cinnamomum camphora through Bio-informatics. Ethnobot Leaf 12:181–190Google Scholar
- Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH (1990) Determination of aldehydic lipidperoxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. In: Packer L, Glazer AN (eds) Oxygen radicals in biological systems. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, California, pp 407–421Google Scholar
- Golechha M, Bhatia J, Arya DS (2010) Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. afford protection against PTZ- induced sizure, oxidative stress and congnitive in rats. Ind J Exp Biol 48:474–478Google Scholar
- Gupta YK, Malhotra J, George B, Kulkarni SK (1999) Methods and consideration for experimental evaluation of antiepileptic drugs. Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 43(1):25–27Google Scholar
- Jawaid T, Rai A, Kamal M (2015b) A comparative study of neuroprotective effect of telmisartan and donepezil against lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation in mice. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 8(6):68–72Google Scholar
- Kamal M, Khan SA, Jawaid T (2010) Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity evaluation of new bromophthalimidobutyryl hydrazones. Indian J Heterocycl Chem 19:321–324Google Scholar
- Kamal M, Shakya AK, Jawed Ahsan M, Jawaid T (2013) Synthesis, anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity evaluation of some newer N-(2-benzoylbenzofuran-3-yl)-3-(substituted)-propanamide analogs. CNS Agents Med Chem (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Central Nervous System Agents) 13(3):159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB (2006) Text book of pharmacognosy, 26th edn. Nirali Prakashan, Pune, pp 593–597Google Scholar
- Krumholz A, Wiebe S, Gronseth G, Shinnar S, Levisohn P, Ting T, Hopp J, Shafer P, Morris H, Seiden L, Barkley G, French J (2007) Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology; American Epilepsy Society. Practice Parameter: evaluating an apparent unprovoked first seizure in adults (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the American Epilepsy Society. Neurology 69:1996–2007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kulkarni SK (2013) Experiments on intact preparations. In: Hand book of experimental pharmacology, 4th edn reprint. Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, pp 142–146Google Scholar
- Kupferberg HJ, Stables JP (1998) In: Stefan H, Kramer G, Mamoli B (eds) Challenge epilepsy—new antiepileptic drugs. Blackwell Sciences, Berlin, p 7Google Scholar
- Madhu A, Keerthi Prashanth HV, Singh J, Shivalinge Gowda KP (2009) To evaluate the anti-epileptic activity of aqueous root extract of Hemidesmus indicus in rats. Arch Pharm Sci Res 1(1):43–47Google Scholar
- Manigauha A, Patel S, Monga J, Ali H (2009) Evaluation of anticonvulsant activity of Pongamia pinnata Linn in experimental animals. Int J Pharm Technol Res 4:1119–1121Google Scholar
- Maynert EW, Klingman GI, Kaji HK (1962) Tolerance to morphine. II. Lack of effects on brain 5-hydroxytryptamine and γ-aminobutyric acid. J Pharm Exp Therap 135:296–299Google Scholar
- McDonald RI, Kelly KM (1993) Antiepileptic drugs: mechanisms of action. Epilepsia 34:S1–8–20Google Scholar
- Porter RJ, Meldrum BS (2001) In: Katzung BG (ed) Basic and clinical pharmacology. Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 403–417Google Scholar
- Rabiul H, Subhasish M, Parag G (2011) Investigation of in vitro anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum camphora leaves. Int J Drug Dev Res 3(1):295–300Google Scholar
- Saikia A, Purkayastha A, Tigga R, Roy D (2016) Anticonvulsant activity of the methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis leaves in albino rats. Int J Pharm Sci Res 7(7):3068–3072Google Scholar
- Suntha G, Prasannaraju Y, Prasad KV (2010) Effect of ethanol extract of Indigofera tinctoria Linn (Fabaceae) on lithium/pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and oxidative stress in wistar rats. Trop J Pharm Res 9:149–156Google Scholar
- The Wealth of India (2010) A dictionary of indian raw materials and industrial products. First Suppl Ser (Raw Materials) 3:575–577Google Scholar
- Zainuddin Z, Mohd Azim MK (2015) Study on the antibacterial and antifungal effects of camphor oil; Cinnamomum camphora with emphasis on the control of overpopulation of tilapia. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 2(5):337–340Google Scholar