Classification, causes, diagnosis and treatment of male infertility: a review

  • Mamuna Naz
  • Mehnaz KamalEmail author


Infertility refers to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception over the course of one year. Male infertility refers to a male’s incapability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. Approximately 15% of couples are affected by infertility and among them 40–50% cases are attributed to male infertility. Male infertility is mainly categorized into Azoospermia (AS) and Coital infertility (CI). Many studies have supported that different factors such as varicocele, testicular failure, endocrine dysfunction, genital tract infection, testicular disturbances, testicular cancer, hormonal disturbances, retrograde ejaculation, prolonged exposure to heat, obesity, older age, smoking, alcohol, heavy metals, pesticides, oxidative stress, genetic factors and different environmental and nutritional factors reversibly or irreversibly influence male fertility. Male infertility can be diagnosed by different tools. Diagnosing male infertility problems usually involves physical examination, semen analysis, hormone tests, testicular biopsy, urine test etc. There are different pharmacological, non-pharmacological, combination and ethno-pharmacological treatment options for male infertility. The infertility of known etiology has considerable treatment success rate. However, genetic or idiopathic male infertility has optimized and empirical approach. This review summarizes classification, causes, diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. The article is based on English peer-reviewed articles located on Scopus, Pubmed, ScienceDirect etc.


Azoospermia Coital infertility Causes Diagnosis Male infertility Treatment 



We are grateful for all the help provided by Dr. Talha Jawaid, Assistant Professor, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors report no declaration of interest.

Ethical statement



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© Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyPrince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz UniversityAl-KharjKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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