Analgesic, anthelmintic and toxicity studies of Solanum violaceum Linn. Leaves
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The methanolic extract of Solanum violaceum L. (Solanaceae), commonly known as Indian Nightshade, has been subjected to analgesic, anthelmintic and acute toxicity studies. Acute toxicity was examined for a period of seven days at doses of 2.0 g/kg (i.p.) and 5.0 g/kg (p.o.) in mice. Analgesic activity (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was assessed following acetic acid- and hot plate-induced pain on mice model. Live parasites Paramphistomum cervi Z. (Paramphistomatidae) and Haemonchus contortus R. (Trichostrongylidae) were used to evaluate anthelmintic activity at concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL. The extract showed no toxicity sign at both of the doses. In analgesic tests, extract inhibited 26 % and 58 % abdominal constriction at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and significantly (P < 0.01) raised pain threshold at both doses. Fastest paralysis occurred in both species of helminths at higher concentrations (100 and 200 mg/mL). The relative index values for paralysis in H. contortus were 1.69, 1.04, 0.57 and 0.31 at the used concentrations mention above. The relative index of death in H. contortus suggested that S. violaceum is parasiticidal at high concentration. Likewise, relative indexes for paralysis and death in P. cervi proposed that S. violaceum is strong parasiticidal agent and comparable with albendazole. These results corroborate the traditional uses of S. violaceum in analgesia and helminthiasis and explain it on scientific grounds.
KeywordsAcetic acid induced writhing Haemonchus contortus Hot-plate test Mice model Parasiticidal Paramphistomum cervi Solanum violaceum
The authors are grateful to the authorities of Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Bangladesh for providing financial and instrumental facilities. We also like to thank the authority of Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification of the plant.
Compliance with ethical standards
The research was carried out according to the rules governing the use of laboratory animals as acceptable internationally and the experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee, Khulna University (Ref: AEC/02/2004).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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