Assessment of anticholinesterase activities and antioxidant potentials of Anisomeles indica relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, and the most predominant cause of dementia in the elderly. Traditionally Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze has widely been used as tonic to brain. Our aim is to investigate the cholinesterase inhibitory activities, and antioxidant properties of the plant extracts in the treatment of AD. The crude methanol extract was prepared by cold extraction method and four fractions namely petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water fraction were assessed for acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by the Ellman method, and their antioxidant properties were assessed by several assays including reducing power, scavenging of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals together with quantitative analyses of endogenous substances. Among the tested samples, ethyl acetate extract was found to demonstrate the highest inhibitory activity significantly against both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes with IC50 values of 176.02 and 143.78 mg/ml, respectively. Similarly, ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest radical scavenging ability appeared to be comparable to the reference standard catechin used in this study. The IC50 values of the extract against DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were 12.67 and 18.61 mg/ml respectively. Quantitative analyses displayed higher contents of phenolics and flavonoids (79.55 and 347.19 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract respectively) in the ethyl acetate fraction. The results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract, possibly due to its phenolic compounds, exerts potential antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory activities which may be useful in the treatment of AD.
KeywordsCholinesterase inhibition Antioxidant activity Radical scavenging Lipid peroxidation
We are grateful to the Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh for providing facilities of this research work.
Compliance with ethical standards
Human blood from anonymous healthy men subject was provided by the International Islamic University Medical Center, Chittagong, Bangladesh using a protocol approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of International Islamic University Chittagong. An earlier consent, approval number ECPDIIUC38/05’13, was taken from the Ethics Committee of Pharmacy Department, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh for collection of blood. We the authors are very respectful about using the human blood. We did not misuse any drop of valuable human blood.
We sacrificed some rats for the collection of rat brain and used as crude enzyme in this study. We were very careful about animal handling and obeyed all of the protocols in this regards approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of International Islamic University Chittagong.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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