In-vivo immunomodulatory activity of standardized Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. root extract

  • Amal K. Maji
  • Sourav K. Samanta
  • Subhadip Mahapatra
  • Pratim Banerji
  • Debdulal Banerjee
Research Article


Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC. is used in various Ayurvedic formulations to treat variety of disorders including inflammations, asthma, blood disorders, fevers, liver disorders etc. Quantification of the bioactive compound in S. suaveolens root extract (SSRE) was determined through RP-HPLC, in order to standardize the plant material with optimal concentration of known active constituents present there in. The immunomodulatory potential of SSRE was determined for its effects on non-specific immune functions against sheep red blood cells antigenic challenge using in-vivo models. The assay included total and differential leukocyte counts, nitroblue-tetrazolium reduction test, neutrophil adhesion test, phagocytic activity and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. In RP-HPLC analysis, the contents of dehydro-α-lapachone and lapachol in SSRE was found to be 0.043 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.002 % (w/w), respectively. Standardized SSRE (100–300 mg/kg) increased the total leukocyte count and the population of monocyte and neutrophil in rats. Further, treatment with SSRE increased the neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres, DTH response, phagocytic activity and intracellular killing potential of phagocytes in a dose dependent manner. The immunostimulatory potential of SSRE at 300 mg/kg was found to be very significant (p < 0.001) in compared to the control. These findings suggest that SSRE can able to stimulate the innate defence mechanisms of an individual and it can be considered as an alternative therapy to boost the innate immune functions during the impaired immunological conditions.


Stereospermum suaveolens RP-HPLC Immunomodulatory activity 



The authors are thankful to Ulysses Research Foundation, India for providing financial assistance to carry out this research work and University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for SAP assistance to Department of Botany, VU.

Conflict of interest

There are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.


  1. Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K, Miri R (2009) Immunomodulatory activities of various medicinal plant extracts: effects on human lymphocytes apoptosis. Immunol Invest 38:181–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burg ND, Pillinger MH (2001) The neutrophil: function and regulation in innate and humoral immunity. Clinical Immunol 99:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Condliffe AM, Chilvers ER, Haslett C, Dransfield I (1986) Priming differentially regulates neutrophil adhesion molecule expression/function. Immunology 89:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CPCSEA (2003) Guidelines for laboratory animal facility. Indian J Pharmacol 35:257–274Google Scholar
  5. de Almeida ER, Lucena FR, Silva CV, da Silva Costa-Junior W, Cavalcanti JB, Couto GB, da Silva LL, da Mota DL, da Silveira AB, de Sousa Filho SD, da Silva AC (2009) Toxicological assessment of beta-lapachone on organs from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Phytother Res 23:1276–1280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DeFranco AL, Locksley RM, Robertson M (2007) Immunity: The Immune Response to Infectious and Inflammatory Disease. New Science Press Ltd, London, pp 5–6Google Scholar
  7. Epstein RJ (2002) Human molecular biology: An introduction to the molecular basis of health and disease, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp 479–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fonseca SGC, da Silva LBL, Castro RF, de Santana DP (2004) Validation of the analytical methodology for evaluation of lapachol in solution by HPLC. Quim Nova 27:157–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghule BV, Yeole PG (2012) In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities of iridoids fraction from Barleria prionitis Linn. J Ethnopharmacol 141:424–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gokhale AB, Damre AS, Saraf MN (2003) Investigations into the immunomodulatory activity of Argyreia speciosa. J Ethnopharmacol 84:109–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haque MR, Rahman KM, Iskander MN, Hasan CM, Rashid MA (2006) Stereochenols A and B, two quinones from Stereospermum chelonoides. Phytochemistry 67:2663–2665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harborne JB (1998) Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Harborne JB, Baxter H, Moss GP (1999) Phytochemical dictionary: A handbook of bioactive compounds from plants, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis Inc, USA, p 551Google Scholar
  14. Hussain H, Krohn K, Ahmad VU, Miana GA, Green IR (2007) Lapachol: An overview. ARKIVOC ii:145–171Google Scholar
  15. Jone K (1995) Pau d'Arco: Immune power from the rain forest. Healing Art Press, USA, p 87Google Scholar
  16. Khare CP (2007) Indian medicinal plants: An illustrated dictionary, 1st edn. Springer, New York, pp 626–627Google Scholar
  17. Kindt TJ, Osborne BA, Goldsby RA (2006) Kuby immunology, 6th edn. WH Freeman & Company, USA, pp 382–384Google Scholar
  18. Kulkarni SR, Nilapawar SM (2001) Extraction, isolation and pharmacological evaluation of naturally occurring pheophytin ‘A’ from Adhathoda vasica (nes). Indian Drugs 38:164–169Google Scholar
  19. Makare N, Bodhankar S, Rangari V (2001) Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Mangifera indica L. in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 78:133–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Manosroi A, Saraphanchotiwitthaya A, Manosroi J (2003) Immunomodulatory activities of Clausena excavate Burm. f. wood extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 89:155–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meena AK, Yadav AK, Panda P, Preet K, Rao MM (2010) Review on Stereospermum suaveolens DC: A potential herb. Drug Invention Today 2:238–239Google Scholar
  22. Mosca PJ, Clay TM, Morse MA, Lyerly HK (2005) Immune Monotoring. In: Khleif S (ed) Tumor immunology and cancer vaccines. Springer Science, New York, pp 369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukherjee D, Khatua TN, Venkatesh P, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK (2010) Immunomodulatory potential of rhizome and seed extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J Ethnopharmacol 128:490–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naved T, Siddiqui JI, Ansari SH, Ansari AA, Mukhtar HM (2005) Immunomodulatory activity of Mangifera indica L. fruits (cv Neelam). J Nat Remedies 5:137–140Google Scholar
  25. OECD (2001) Guideline for Testing of Chemicals. Test no. 423: Acute Oral Toxicity - Acute Toxic Class Method, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliveira RA, Azevedo-Ximenes E, Luzzati R, Garcia RC (2010) The hydroxy-naphthoquinone lapachol arrests mycobacterial growth and immunomodulates host macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol 10:1463–1473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pandit S, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Gajbhiye R, Venkatesh M, Ponnusankar S, Bhadra S (2012) Cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential of selected Indian spices - possible food drug interaction. Food Res Int 45:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Patel S, Banji D, Banji OJF, Patel MM, Shah KK (2010) Scrutinizing the role of aqueous extract of Trapa bispinosa as an immunomodulator in experimental animals. Int J Res Pharm Sci 1:13–19Google Scholar
  29. Pavelka M, Roth J (2010) Functional ultrastructure: Atlas of tissue biology and pathology, 2nd edn. Springer Wien, New York, p 104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Plaeger SF (2003) Clinical immunology and traditional herbal medicines. Clin Vaccine Immunol 10:337–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Salas C, Tapia RA, Ciudad K, Armstrong V, Orellana M, Kemmerling U, Ferreira J, Maya JD, Morello A (2008) Trypanosoma cruzi: activities of lapachol and alpha- and beta-lapachone derivatives against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms. Bioorg Med Chem 16:668–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shetty N (2005) Immunology: Introductory Textbook. 2nd edn. New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, pp 90–92Google Scholar
  33. Srikumar R, Parthasarathy JN, Devi RS (2005) Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions. Biol Pharm Bull 28:1398–1403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Srivastava N, Khatoon S, Rawat AK, Rai V, Mehrotra S (2009) Chromatographic estimation of p-coumaric acid and triacontanol in an Ayurvedic root drug patala (Stereospermum suaveolens Roxb.). J Chromatogr Sci 47:936–939PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sumalatha RBP, Ballal SR, Acharya S (2012) Studies on immunomodulatory effects of Salacia chinensis L. on albino rats. J App Pharm Sci 2:98–107Google Scholar
  36. Thakur M, Bhargava S, Dixit VK (2007) Immunomodulatory activity of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 4:419–423PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trease GE, Evans MC (1983) Textbook of pharmacognosy. Balliere, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Wagner H, Kraus S, Jurcic K (1988) In vitro stimulation of human granulocytes and lymphocytes by pico- and femtogram quantities of cytostatic agents. Drug Res 38:237–275Google Scholar
  39. Wagner H, Kraus S, Jurcic K (1999) Search for potent immunostimulating agents from plants and other natural sources. In: Wagner H (ed) Immunomodulatory agents from plants. Birkhauser, Barlin, p 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Willard T, Murray MT (2012) Pharmacology of Natural Medicines. In: Pizzorno JE, Murray MT (eds) Textbook of natural medicine. Churchill Livingstone, Missouri, p 1048Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amal K. Maji
    • 1
  • Sourav K. Samanta
    • 2
  • Subhadip Mahapatra
    • 1
  • Pratim Banerji
    • 3
  • Debdulal Banerjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany and ForestryVidyasagar UniversityMidnaporeIndia
  2. 2.School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical TechnologyJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Ulysses Research FoundationKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations