Advertisement

Annals of Forest Science

, 76:74 | Cite as

Xylogenesis of Pinus radiata D. Don growing in New Zealand

  • Bernadette NanayakkaraEmail author
  • Alan R. Dickson
  • Dean F. Meason
Research Paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Wood formation and tree adaptation to climate

Abstract

Key Message

Pinus radiata D. Don growing in the central North Island of New Zealand did not show full winter cambial dormancy. While there was a brief cessation of cambial cell division during June (winter), cell wall thickening, secondary wall deposition, and lignification of tracheids continued throughout the year.

Context

The xylogenesis of Pinus radiata showing only partial winter dormancy has not previously been reported.

Aims

To verify the absence of winter dormancy of P. radiata growing in the mild cool climate of the central North Island. To characterise the intra-annual dynamics of xylem cell formation (cell division and enlargement as well as cell wall thickening and lignification) and growth rates and identify the main drivers of growth.

Methods

Xylogenesis was monitored by microcore sampling while radial growth was monitored by dendrometers, which was then related to rainfall and temperature.

Results

Xylem cell formation started by mid-July and continued until late May of the following year and peaked in spring and early autumn with minimum activity in Southern Hemisphere winter solstice (June 21, DOY 172). A higher correlation was found between the radial stem growth and temperature than with rainfall.

Conclusion

There was a winter period of about 30 days where there was no cambial cell division and the differentiation of latewood cells was stalled. This slow-down was supported by dendrometer measurements. This is likely due to the relatively mild winter temperatures and absence of drought conditions that are characteristic of the central North Island climate.

Key words

Dormancy Microcores Cambium Lignification Dendrometers Climate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors acknowledge Alex Manig’s help in microcore sampling, Rod Brownlie for his expertise in dendrometers and Damien Sellier for helping in tree measurements and dendrometer data collation. Rowland Burdon, Lloyd Donaldson for critical review of manuscript and Rowland Burdon for useful suggestions. Michelle Harnett for editorial review.

Funding

This research was supported by the ‘Growing Confidence in Forestry’s Future’ research programme (C04X1306) which is jointly funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment and the New Zealand Forest Growers Levy Trust.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abramoff MD (2004) Image processing with Image J. Biophoton Int 11:36–42Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2017) R Core Team, rmcorr R package http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rmcorr. Accessed 04/04/2018
  3. Bakdash JZ, Marusich LR (2017) Repeated measures correlation. Front Psychol 8:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnett JR (1971) Winter activity in the cambium of Pinus radiata. NZ J Forestry Sci 1:208–222Google Scholar
  5. Barnett JR (1973) Seasonal variation in the ultrastructure of the cambium in New Zealand grown Pinus radiata D. Don. Ann Bot 37:1005–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Begum S, Nakaba S, Bayramzadeh V, Oribe Y, Kubo T, Funada R (2008) Temperature responses of cambial reactivation and xylem differentiation in hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii x P. grandidentata) under natural conditions. Tree Physiol 28:1813–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Begum S, Nakaba S, Yamagishi Y, Oribe Y, Funada R (2013) Regulation of cambial activity in relation to environmental conditions: understanding the role of temperature in wood formation of trees. Physiol Plant 147:46–54.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2012.01663.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Begum S, Kudo K, Rahman MH, Nkaba S, Yamagishi Y, Nebeshima E, Nugroho WD, Oribe Y, Kitin P, IJin H-O, Funada R (2018) Climate change and the regulation of wood formation in trees by temperature. Trees 32:3–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollmann MP, Sweet GW (1976) Bud morphogenesis of Pinus radiata in New Zealand. 1. The initiation and extension of leading shoot of one clone in two sites. NZ J Forestry Sci 6:379–392Google Scholar
  10. Bouriaud O, Leban J-M, Bert D, Deleuze C (2005) Intra-annual variations of climate influence growth and wood density of Norway spruce. Tree Physiol 25:651–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carteni F, Deslauriers A, Sergio R, Morin H, De Micco V, Mazzoleni S, Ginnino F (2018) The physiological mechanism behind earlywood-latewood transition: a process based modelling approach. Front Plant Sci 9:1053.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01053 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Chappell PR (2013) The climate and weather of Bay of plenty, New Zealand. NIWA Science and Technology Series No 62, Bay of Plenty, pp. 1-40Google Scholar
  13. Cremer KW (1973) Seasonal variation of height development in Pinus radiata near Canberra. Aust Forest Res 6:31–52Google Scholar
  14. Cuny HE, Rathgeber CBK, Frank D, Fonti P, Makinen H, Prislan P, Rossi S, Del Castillo EM, Campelo F, Vavrci H, Camarero JJ, Bryukhanova MV, Jyske T, Gricar J, Gryc V, De Luis M, Vieira J, Cufar K, Kirdyanov AV, Oberhuber W, Treml V, Huang JG, Li X, Swidrak I, Deslauriers A, Liang E, Nojd P, Gruber A, Nabais C, Morin H, Krause C, King G, Fournier M (2015) Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests. Nat Plants 1:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2015.160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Luis M, Gricar J, Katarina C, Jose R (2007) Seasonal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus halepensis from dry and semi-arid ecosystems in spain. IAWA J 28:389–404Google Scholar
  16. Denne M, Dodd R (1981) Environmental control of xylem differentiation, xylem cell development. In: Barnett JR (ed) Xylem cell development. Castle House, Kent, pp 236–255Google Scholar
  17. Deslauriers A, Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Saracino A (2008) Cambial phenology, wood formation and temperature thresholds in two contrasting years at high altitude in southern Italy. Tree Physiol 28:863–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickson AR, Nanayakkara B, Sellier D, Meason D, Donaldson L, Brownlie R (2017) Fluorescence imaging of cambial zones to study wood formation in Pinus radiata D. Don. Trees 31:479–490.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1469-3
  19. Donaldson LA (1991) Seasonal changes in lignin distribution during tracheid development in Pinus radiata Wood Sci Technol 25:15–24Google Scholar
  20. Donaldson L (1992) Lignin distribution during latewood formation in Pinus radiata D. Don. IAWA Bull 13:381–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drew DM, Downes G (2015) A model of stem growth and wood formation in Pinus radiata. Trees 29:1395–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. FOA (2016) https://www.nzfoa.org.nz/resources/publications/facts-and-figures. Forest Owners Association. Accessed 24 Apr 2019
  23. Fromm J (2013) Xylem development in trees: from cambial divisions to mature wood cells In: Fromm J (ed) Cellular Aspects of Wood Formation. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 3–40Google Scholar
  24. GCFF (2014) Growing confidence in forestry’s future, https://gcff.nz/. New Zealand. Accessed 10 Oct 2018
  25. Gričar J, Zupančič M, Čufar K, Koch G, Schmitt U, Oven P (2006) Effect of local heating and cooling on cambial activity and cell differentiation in the stem of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Ann Bot 97:943–951.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcl050 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson DS, Gifford HH, Chittenden J (1976) Environmental variables influencing the increment of Pinus radiata: (2) effects of seasonal drought on height and diameter increment. NZ J Forestry Sci 5:265–286Google Scholar
  27. Jenkins PA (1976) Seasonal trends in translocation of 14C photosynthate and their association with wood formation in radiata pine seedlings. NZ J Forestry Sci 5:62–73Google Scholar
  28. Jenkins PA, Shepherd PR (1975) Seasonal changes in levels of indole-acetic acid and abscisic acid in stem tissues of Pinus radiata. NZ J Forestry Sci 4:511–519Google Scholar
  29. Jenkins PA, Hellmers H, Edge EA, Rook DA, Burdon RD (1977) Influence of photoperiod of growth and wood formation of Pinus radiata. NZ J Forestry Sci 7:172–191Google Scholar
  30. Lanner RM (1966) The phenology and growth habits of pines in Hawaii. US For Serv Res Paper PSW-29Google Scholar
  31. Larson PR (1962) Auxin gradients and the regulation of cambial acvitity. In: Kozlowski TT (ed) Tree Growth. The Ronald Press, New York, pp 97–117Google Scholar
  32. Larson PR (1969) Wood formation and the concept of wood quality. Yale University School of For Bull 74:1–53Google Scholar
  33. Larson PR (1994) The vascular cambium development and structure. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Locosselli GM (2018) The cambium activity in a changing world. Trees 32(1):1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-017-1616-5
  35. Lupi C, Morin H, Deslauriers A, Rossi S (2010) Xylem phenology and wood production: resolving the chicken-or-egg dilemma. Plant Cell Environ 33:1721–1730.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2010.02176.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lupi C, Morin H, Deslauriers A, Rossi S (2012) Xylogenesis in black spruce: does soil temperature matter? Tree Physiol 32:74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Makinen H, Seo JW, Nojd P, Schmitt U, Jalkanen R (2008) Seasonal dynamics of wood formation: a comparison between pinning, microcoring and dendrometer measurements. Eur J For Res 127:235–245.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10342-007-0199-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murmanis L (1971) Structural changes in the vascular cambium of Pinus strobus L. during an annual cycle. Ann Bot 35:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prislan P, Cufar K, Koch G, Schmitt U, Gricar J (2013) Review of cellular and subcellular changes in the cambium. IAWA J 34:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rathgeber CBK, Rossi S, Bontemps JD (2011) Cambial activity related to tree size in a mature silver-fir plantation. Ann Bot 108:429–438.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcr168 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Menardi R (2006a) Trephor: A new tool for sampling microcores from tree stems. IAWA J 27:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Morin H, Saracino A, Motta R, Borghetti M (2006b) Conifers in cold environments synchronize maximum growth rate of tree-ring formation with day length. New Phytol 170:301–310.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2006.01660.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Carraro V (2007) Evidence of threshold temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers at high altitudes. Oecologia 152:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-006-0625-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Gricar J, Seo JW, Rathgeber CBK, Anfodillo T, Morin H, Levanic T, Oven P, Jalkanen R (2008) Critical temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers of cold climates. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:696–707.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2008.00417.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rossi S, Simard S, Rathgeber CBK, Deslauriers A, De Zan C (2009) Effects of a 20-day-long dry period on cambial and apical meristem growth in Abies balsamea seedlings. Trees-Struct Funct 23:85–93.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-008-0257-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Samuels AL, Kaneda M, Rensing KH (2006) The cell biology of wood formation: from cambial divisions to mature secondary xylem. Can J Bot 84:631–639.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b06-065
  47. Savidge RA (2000) Intrinsic regulation of cambial growth. J Plant Growth Regul 20:52–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Seo J-W, Eckstein D, Jalkanen R, Rickebusch S, Schmitt U (2008) Estimating the onset of cambial activity in Scots pine in northern Finland by means of the heat-sum approach. Tree Physiol 28:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skene DS (1969) The period of time taken by cambial derivatives to grow and differentiate into trachieds in Pinus radiata. Ann Bot 33:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tennent RB (1986) Intra-annual growth of young Pinus radiata in New Zealand. NZ J Forestry Sci 16:166–175Google Scholar
  51. Vaganov EA, Huges MK, Shashkin AV (2005) Growth dynamics of conifer tree rings. Springer, HeidelburgGoogle Scholar
  52. Vieira J, Rossi S, Campelo F, Freitas H, Nabais C (2014) Xylogenesis of Pinus pinaster under a Mediterranean climate. Ann For Sci 71:71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-013-0341-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vieira J, Carvalho A, Campelo F (2018) Xylogenesis in the early life stages of maritime pine. For Ecol Manag 424:71–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.04.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ScionRotoruaNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations