The relation between pressure–volume curve traits and stomatal regulation of water potential in five temperate broadleaf tree species
In the five temperate tree species, leaf turgor loss point and the stringency of stomatal regulation are not related to each other and to the drought sensitivity of radial growth, suggesting that additional factors exert a large influence on the species’ drought tolerance.
How trees are responding to drought will largely determine their fitness and survival in a warmer and drier world. Much of our understanding of the drought response strategies of woody plants has been based on the study of either plant hydraulics or leaf water status dynamics or stomatal behavior, while the interaction of these components is less often studied.
To examine the relatedness of leaf tissue osmotic and elastic properties to the isohydry–anisohydry syndrome in adult trees of five co-occurring broadleaf tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Fraxinus excelsior L., and Tilia cordata Mill.), which differ in the stringency of stomatal regulation.
Adult trees of the five species were accessed with a mobile canopy lift and pressure–volume (p-v) curves of sun leaf tissue analyzed for species differences and seasonal change in p-v curve parameters. The extent of seasonal fluctuation in daily leaf water potential (Ψl) minima served to position the species along the isohydry-anisohydry continuum.
The five species differed greatly in the bulk modulus of elasticity (ε) (12 MPa to 33 MPa) and, to a lesser extent, in leaf water potential at turgor loss (πtlp) (− 2.3 MPa to − 2.9 MPa), exhibiting species-specific combinations of p-v parameters with the extent of Ψl fluctuation. However, πtlp and ε were only weakly, or not at all, related to the species’ position along the isohydry–anisohydry continuum. Anisohydric Fagus sylvatica with high ε and relatively low πtlp had a more drought-sensitive radial growth than the fairly isohydric Tilia cordata with low ε and relatively high πtlp.
The five coexisting tree species exhibit largely different drought response strategies, which are partly determined by species differences in leaf tissue elasticity and the stringency of stomatal regulation.
KeywordsAnisohydry Acer pseudoplatanus Carpinus betulus Fagus sylvatica Fraxinus excelsior Isohydry p-v curve analysis Tilia cordata
The authors thank the Hainich National Park administration for the fruitful cooperation and the granting of research permits.
C.L. had the idea and developed together with P.W. the study design, P.W. conducted the measurements and the main data analysis, T.L. and C.L. conducted the additional statistical tests, and C.L. wrote the paper. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
This study received financial support from DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) in the context of Graduiertenkolleg 1086 through a grant to C.L; this support is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
- Abrams MD (1988) Genetic variation in leaf morphology and plant and tissue water relations during drought in Cercis canadensis L. For Sci 34:200–207Google Scholar
- Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH(T), Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim JH, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Choat B, Jansen S, Brodribb TJ, Cochard H, Delzon S, Bhaskar R, Bucci SJ, Feild TS, Gleason SM, Hacke UG, Jacobsen AL, Lens F, Maherali H, Martínez-Vilalta J, Mayr S, Mencuccini M, Mitchell PJ, Nardini A, Pittermann J, Pratt RB, Sperry JS, Westoby M, Wright IJ, Zanne AE (2012) Global convergence in the vulnerability of forests to drought. Nature 491:752–755PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ellenberg H (1996) Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen, 5th edn. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
- Guicherd P, Peltier JP, Gout E, Bligny R, Marigo G (1997) Osmotic adjustment in F. excelsior excelsior L.: malate and mannitol accumulation in leaves under drought conditions. Trees 11:155–161Google Scholar
- Hiekel W, Fritzlar F, Nöllert A, Westhus W (2004) Die Naturräume Thüringens. Naturschutzreport (Jena) 21:6–381Google Scholar
- Hinckley TM, Teskey RO, Duhme F, Richter H (1981) Temperate hardwood forests. In: Kozlowski TT (ed) Water deficits and plant growth, Woody plant communities, vol VI. Academic, New York, pp 153–208Google Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker TF et al (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, UK and New York, 1535 ppGoogle Scholar
- Kozlowski TT, Pallardy SG (2002) Acclimation and adaptive responses of woody plants to environmental stresses. Biol Rev 68:270–334Google Scholar
- Kramer PJ, Boyer JS (1995) Water relations of plants and soils. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Lakatos F, Molnar M (2009) Mass mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in south-west Hungary. Acta Silv Lign Hung 5:75–82Google Scholar
- Levitt J (1972) Responses of plants to environmental stresses. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Merchant A (2014) The regulation of osmotic potential in trees. In: Tausz M, Grulke N (eds) Trees in a changing environment, Plant ecophysiology, vol 9. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 83–97Google Scholar
- Mitchell PJ, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Burgess SO (2008) Leaf water relations during summer water deficit: differential repsonses in turgor maintenance and variation in leaf structure among different plant communities in South-Western Australia. Plant Cell Environ 31:1791–1802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pallardy SG (2008) Physiology of woody plants, 3rd edn. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, R Core Team (2018) nlme: linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R Package Version 3:1–137 https://CRANGoogle Scholar
- Prometheuswiki (2018) Leaf pressure-volume curve parameters. http://prometheuswiki.org/tiki-index.php?page=Pressure-volume+curves. (accessed 2/2018)
- Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd edn. W. H. Freeman and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Tyree MT, Jarvis PG (1982) Water in tissues and cells. Encyclopedia plant physiol. N.S., Vol. 12B. Springer, Berlin, pp 35–77Google Scholar
- Zuur A, Ieno EN, Walker N, Savaliev AA, Smith GM (2009) Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer ScienceGoogle Scholar