Demographic strategies of a dominant tree species in response to logging in a degraded subtropical forest in Southeast China
The demography of pioneer tree species ( Pinus massoniana Lamb.) is significantly affected by logging in Southeast China. Logging negatively affects the population growth rate of P. massoniana , which facilitates the growth of individual trees but has no effect on reproduction probability. The survival and growth of seedlings contribute the most to population growth.
Subtropical forest degradation caused by unreasonable disturbances is closely related to anthropogenic activities in Southeast China, and the frequent small-scale logging activity by local people was the dominated disturbance regime in forests in this region over the past several decades.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the demographic consequences of logging on Pinus massoniana, a pioneer tree species, at individual level (survival, growth, and fecundity) and population level (the population growth rate and size distribution) over short-term period.
The size of tree individuals was combined with vital rates using various modeling approaches based on demographic data from three annual censuses. The integral projection model (IPM) was constructed and used to conduct comparative demographic analyses.
Logging negatively affected the population growth rate: from a slight expansion before logging to a moderate decline after logging. This study found a significant reduction in seedling recruitment after logging, and plant growth and mortality were slightly enhanced. The survival of seedlings greatly contributes to population growth rate compared to other life stages for both periods (before and after logging) while its relative importance decreases after logging. Seedling growth is also important to population growth, and its relative importance increased after logging. Shrinkage and fecundity have a minimal contribution effect on the population growth rate.
Growing plants in a nursery with a similar demography to P. massoniana could be beneficial for pioneer species regeneration in that this will improve the survival rate and growth of small individuals after logging.
KeywordsPinus massoniana Logging Integral projection model Elasticity Degraded subtropical forest Pioneer tree demography
We would like to thank Pei-Zhi Lin and Ying Zhao for their dedicated assistance during data collection in the field.
This study was supported by the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (grant no 31470633) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant no 2017YFC05054).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alyemeni MN, Sher H (2010) Impact of human pressure on the population structure of Persicaria amplexicaule, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola serpens the naturally growing medicinal plants in Malam Jaba, Swat, Pakistan. J Med Plants Res 4:2080–2091Google Scholar
- An-Ping BI, Zhu HJ, Wang DG, Yue H, Tian-Hua MA (2011) Farmers’ fuel choices and economics in a soil and water loss region bulletin of soil and water conservation. 149–154Google Scholar
- Arets E, Van der Hout P, Zagt R (2003) Responses of tree populations and forest composition to selective logging in Guyana. Long-term changes in tropical tree diversity: studies from the Guiana Shield, Africa, Borneo and Melanesia Tropenbos Series 22:95–115Google Scholar
- Carvalho JOP, Silva JNM, Silva MG, Gomes JM, Taffarel M, Nobre DNV (2013) Mortality of girdled trees and survival of seedlings in canopy gaps after logging in an upland forest in the Brazilian Amazon Revista De Ciencias Agrarias/Amazonian. J Agric Environ Sci 56:48–52Google Scholar
- Chen JS, Su ZX (2001) Reproductive allocation of biomass in Pinus Massoniana at Mt. JinYun. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica 25:704–708Google Scholar
- Chen Z, Zhu H, Xiao H, Lin H (2005) The characteristics of plant communities in eroded granite hilly land after taking soil and water conservation measures Journal of Fujian Normal University (Natural Science) 21:97–102Google Scholar
- Fan XY, Liao CY, Xie Y, Gao BS (2008) Investigation and analysis on the growth of Pinus slyvestris var. momgolica in southeast Maowusu desert areas. Journal of Northwest Forestry University 23:112–116Google Scholar
- Fangyuan YU, Xizeng XU, Dguy R (2003) Effects of water and heat stress on the seedling height growth and biomass of five trees. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University 27:10–14Google Scholar
- Figueira AMES, Miller SD, De Sousa CAD, Menton MC, Maia AR, Rocha HRD, Goulden ML (2008) Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 113:243–250Google Scholar
- Gong ZW, Gu L, Liu XS (2013) The distribution pattern of main coniferous resource for non-commercial forest in Beijing, P. R. China. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications 7:476–483Google Scholar
- Han WP, Ding GJ, Bao B (2012) Physiological and ecological responses of Pinus massoniana seedling from different provenances to drought stress. J Cent S Univ For Technol 32:25–29Google Scholar
- He SJ, Xie JS, Yang ZJ, Yin YF, Li DC, Yang YS (2011) Status, causes and prevention of soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana woodland in hilly red soil region of southern China. Science of Soil and Water Conservation 9:65–70Google Scholar
- Hu BT, Wang XL, Cai HM, Hong SS, Feng JW, Yi JS (2000) Study on consecutive 8-year effect of fertilizer on a juvenile Masson pine plantation. For Res 13:286–289Google Scholar
- Hua P, Yan L, Zhi C, Simonson S, Luo G (2015) A preliminary study of desertification in red beds in the humid region of Southern China. Acta Geograph Sin 70:1699–1707Google Scholar
- Huang CB et al (2013) Effects of different sites and intermediate cutting intensities on growth of planted young Pinus massoniana forests. Journal of Northwest Forestry University 28:141–145Google Scholar
- Jin Y, Peng H, Yan L, Xiang Y, Wang X (2015) Discussion on desertification of humid region in southern China. Prog Geogr 34:772–780Google Scholar
- Li SL, Yu FH, Werger MJA, Dong M, Zuidema PA (2011) Habitat-specific demography across dune fixation stages in a semi-arid sandland: understanding the expansion, stabilization and decline of a dominant shrub. J Ecol 99:610–620Google Scholar
- Li M, Du M, Nie C (2014) Research advances in soil improvement of Pinus massoniana plantation. World Forestry Research 27:31–36Google Scholar
- Lin H (2005) Contrast analysis on the measures of Masson pine reclaim fertilization and mixed nitrogen fixation vegetation. Subtropical Soil and Water Conservation 17:59–60Google Scholar
- Liu S, Zeng W (2017) Large-scale individual tree growth models for Pinus massoniana in China. Forest Resources Management 2:28–33Google Scholar
- Ma Z, Zha X (2008) Research on ecological recovering of erosive degraded Pinus massoniana woodland in red soil region of Southern China. Research of Soil and Water Conservation 15:188–193Google Scholar
- Ma ZR, Meng XJ, Wang L, Cheng BW (2017) Study on different intermediate cutting intensities experiment of Pinus massoniana plantations in Chongqing area. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology 44:33–36Google Scholar
- Ning QR, Li SZ, Jiang LC, Zhao Y, Liu R, Zhang XY (2016) Foliar nutrient content and resorption efficiency of Pinus massoniana in the subtropical red soil erosion region. Acta Ecol Sin 36:3510–3517Google Scholar
- Pan D, Zhang H, Pan G (2016) Community dynamics and stability of different aged Pinus massoniana plantations in southern Guangxi Chinese. J Ecol 35:1481–1490Google Scholar
- Peng S, Huang Z, Peng S, Ouyang X, Xu G (2004) Factors influencing mortality of seed and seedling in plant nature regeneration process. Guihaia 24:113–106Google Scholar
- Qi L, Zhao FQ (2015) Impact of logging intensity on the spatial distribution and association of dominant tree species in a broadleaved Korean pine mixed forest. Acta Ecol Sin 35:46–55Google Scholar
- Ren H, Shen WJ, Lu HF, Wen XY, Jian SG (2007) Degraded ecosystems in China: status, causes, and restoration efforts. Landsc Ecol Eng 3:1-13Google Scholar
- Roovers P, Verheyen K, Hermy M, Gulinck H (2004) Experimental trampling and vegetation recovery in some forest and heathland communities. Appl Veg Sci 7:111–118Google Scholar
- Schweitzer CJ, Dey DC (2013) Logging intensity impact on small oak seedling survival and growth on the Cumberland Plateau in northeastern Alabama South. J Appl For 37:113–121Google Scholar
- Sun B, Hu Z, Lü J, Zhou L, Xu C (2006) Nutrient leaching and acidification of Southern China coniferous forest red soil under stimulated N deposition. Chin J Appl Ecol 17:1820–1826Google Scholar
- Tan JH, Tang SS, Chen H (2017) Advances of drought resistance in Pinus massoniana Guangxi. For Sci 46:1–7Google Scholar
- Vajpeyi D K, Ponomarenko A (2001) Deforestation in China. Deforestation environment, and sustainable development: a comparative analysis. Praeger Publishers, pp 91–110Google Scholar
- Vieira DLM, Scariot A (2008) Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging. Braz Arch Biol Technol 51:419–431Google Scholar
- Villela DM, Nascimento MT, Aragão LEOCD, DMD G (2006) Effect of selective logging on forest structure and nutrient cycling in a seasonally dry. Brazilian Atlantic forest Journal of Biogeography 33:506–516Google Scholar
- Wang C, Han S, Huang M (2001) The ABA change and physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica Litv. to water shortage. Journal of Northeast Forestry University 29:40–43Google Scholar
- Win RN, Suzuki R, Takeda S (2012) Effects of selective logging on the regeneration of two commercial tree species in the Kabaung Reserved Forest, Bago Mountains, Myanmar. J Trop For Sci 24:312–321Google Scholar
- Winkler E, Marcante S, Erschbamer B (2015) Demography of the alpine pioneer species Saxifraga aizoides in different successional stages at the glacier foreland of the Rotmoosferner (Obergurgl, Otztal, Austria). Tuexenia 35:267–283Google Scholar
- Xie J, Yang Y, Chen G, Huang R, Zheng B (2002) Studies on the nutrient circulation and energy of the serious degraded community after closing of hillsides and management to facilitate afforestation. J Mt Res 20:325–330Google Scholar
- Yang M (2004) The effects of human-caused disturbances on the growth course of Pinus massiniana’ natural forest. Journal of Fujian Forestry Science and Technology 31:68–71Google Scholar
- Yang X, Li S, Shen B, Wu Y, Sun S, Liu R, Zha R, Li S-L (2018) Plant demography data of Pinus massoniana measured from 2011-2013 in a degraded subtropical forest in Southeast China. V1. PANGAEA. [Dataset]. https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.890755
- Zeng J, Lei YC, Jia HY, Cai DX, Tang JX (2017) Dynamic growth response of Pinus massoniana plantation on intensive thinning in Southwestern Guangxi, China. For Res 30:335–341Google Scholar
- Zhang J, Lin G, Lin Z, Peng C (2005) Response of photosynthesis to growth light intensity in some south subtropical woody plants. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 13:511–518Google Scholar
- Zhang C, Hanqiu X, Zhang H, Tang F, Lin Z (2015) Fractional vegetation cover change and its ecological effect assessment in a typical reddish soil region of Southeastern China: Changting County, Fujian Province. J Nat Resour 30:917–928Google Scholar
- Zhu HJ (2015a) Strategies on eco-restoration in the subtropical mountain ecosystem fragility areas, China: based on the achievement of eleven years’ research in Changting County. J Nat Resour 28:1498–1506Google Scholar