Low within-population genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation among populations of the endangered plant Tetracentron sinense Oliver revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat analysis
Tetracentron sinense Oliver, an endangered species from China, displays a low within-population genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation among populations, and the existing populations could be divided into three conservation and management units.
The endangered tree Tetracentron sinense Oliver has great value; however, little is known regarding the within-population genetic diversity and differentiation among T. sinense populations.
We examined the genetic diversity and differentiation of T. sinense wild populations, and we tested the effect of small-size population on the level of genetic diversity within these populations.
Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), we assessed the genetic variation and structure among 174 individuals from 26 natural populations of T. sinense sampled across its distribution range in China.
The ISSR primers yielded 180 amplified loci (123 were polymorphic). At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL), Nei’s gene diversity (H), and Shannon’s information index (I) were 68.3%, 0.196 and 0.300, respectively. The average population level PPL was 20.0%, and the Na, Ne, H, and I were 1.20, 1.13, 0.076, and 0.112, respectively. AMOVA revealed high genetic differentiation among populations (52.0% of total variance, P = 0.001), consistent with the gene differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.607) and gene flow (Nm = 0.326). The 174 individuals of the 26 T. sinense populations clustered into three groups, and T. sinense geographic and genetic distance were significantly correlated.
T. sinense exhibited intermediate within-species genetic diversity, indicating preserved evolutionary potential. The low within-population genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation among T. sinense populations may be one of important factors causing endangerment. Three conservation units were determined based on genetic difference and structure. Inter-population introduction of individuals within units via appropriate propagation and seedling management might be an effective strategy for increasing T. sinense within-population genetic diversity and population size.
KeywordsTetracentron sinense Oliver Genetic variation Genetic structure Molecular marker ISSR Conservation strategy, China
amplified fragment length polymorphisms
coefficient of genetic differentiation
Nei’s gene diversity
gene diversity within populations
total gene diversity
Shannon’s information index
inter-simple sequence repeat
observed number of alleles
effective number of alleles
gene flow among populations
the percentage of polymorphic loci
random amplified polymorphic DNA
spatial genetic structure
simple sequence repeat
We thank the following peoples in each Nature Reserve Authority (NRA) for sample collecting: Zhirong Gu and Guorong Wei in Badagongshan NRA and Longping Tang in Sunhuangshan NRA of Hunan province, Shuanzhu Dong in Taibaishan NRA of Shanxi province, Liming Chen in Tangjiahe NRA and Dahai Zhu in Longxi-Hongkou NRA of Sichuan province, Aicai Nie in Wufeng Houhe NRA of Hubei province, and Ma in Baishuijiang NRA of Gansu province.
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.31370367), the Applied Basic Research Project of Sichuan Province, China (No.2017JY0164) and the Meritocracy Research Funds of China West Normal University (No. 17YC325).
Compliance with ethical standards
The State Forestry Administration of the People’s Republic of China granted permissions to Professor Xiaohong Gan for using the endangered species of plant (Tetracentron sinense).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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