Radial growth of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata displays a larger temperature sensitivity in dominant than codominant trees
The radial wood growth curves of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata (an endangered species of subtropical Taiwan) exhibit an S shape. The dominant trees displayed a larger radial growth than the codominant trees, and their growth was more sensitive to air temperature.
Knowledge of wood radial growth is important for evaluating the factors that limit tree growth performance. The relevant experiments have mostly been conducted in cold and temperate ecosystems, but rarely in subtropical ecosystems.
In this study, we aimed to construct a unified radial growth model for Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata and to identify its sensitivity to temperature.
The wood radial increments were quantified for 3 years by either pinning or microcoring. The radial wood growth curves were modelled integratively by semiparametric regression and individually by curve fitting. The effects of tree social class, interannual and environmental factors on radial growth were analysed quantitatively.
A unified S-shaped growth model for C. kanehirae was successfully constructed. By including the social class effect, the model was significantly improved. The maximum radial increment (A) was significantly correlated with the maximum growth rate (μ); both A and μ were significantly higher in dominant than in codominant trees. The time-varying radial growth rate was more sensitive to air temperature in dominant than in codominant trees.
Semiparametric models revealed an S-shaped growth curve of C. kanehirae and confirmed the higher temperature sensitivity of dominant trees compared to codominant trees in humid subtropical areas.
KeywordsWood radial growth Semiparametric model Temperature Tree social classes Taiwan
The authors acknowledge support from Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute, National Applied Research Laboratories to provide Data Bank for Atmospheric & Hydrologic Research service. The authors thank the editors and the anonymous referee for their suggestions which substantially improved this paper. C-C Tsai thank Ching-Te Chien and Chin-Mei Lee from Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taiwan for their help of setting up the experiment, Tung-Yu Hsieh from Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences for his valuable suggestion on model building, and Hsiao-Hang Tao from Göttingen University for her wise advice on manuscript editing.
This study was funded by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST 102-2313-B-002-035 and 103-2313-B-002-10).
Compliance with ethical standards
The Executive Committee of the Executive Yuan, Council of Agriculture, Forestry Bureau granted permissions on Republic of China October 5, 106 to Professor Ling-Long Kuo-Huang, for using endangered species of plant (Cinnamomum kanehirae) (No.: 106/010104/02).
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Akaike H (1973) Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petran BN, Csaki F (eds) International symposium on information theory. Akademiai Kiadi, pp 267–281Google Scholar
- Chen Y-C (2015) Evaluation of ring characteristics of hardwoods by wounding window method. Master’s thesis, National Chung Hsing UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Chen S-Y, Chien C-T (2012) Seed reproduction of Cinnamomum kanehirae (in Chinese). For Res Newsl 19:26–28Google Scholar
- Chung J-D, Chien C-T, Tsai C-P (2012) Seed production stands and seed orchards of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (in Chinese). For Res Newsl 19:21–25Google Scholar
- Cuny HE, Rathgeber CBK, Frank D, Fonti P, Mäkinen H, Prislan P, Rossi S, del Castillo EM, Campelo F, Vavrčík H, Camarero JJ, Bryukhanova MV, Jyske T, Gričar J, Gryc V, de Luis M, Vieira J, Čufar K, Kirdyanov AV, Oberhuber W, Treml V, Huang JG, Li X, Swidrak I, Deslauriers A, Liang E, Nöjd P, Gruber A, Nabais C, Morin H, Krause C, King G, Fournier M (2015) Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests. Nat Plants 1:15160. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2015.160 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Deslauriers A, Morin H, Urbinati C, Carrer M (2003b) Daily weather response of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) stem radius increment from dendrometer analysis in the boreal forests of Québec (Canada). Trees - Struct Funct 17:477–484. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-003-0260-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fox J, Weisberg S (2011) An R companion to applied regression, 2nd edn. SAGE Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
- Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Huang S-G, Ho K-Y, Wu K et al (1996) Survey on the composition and structure of natural Cinnamomum kanehirae forests. Taiwan For J 11:349–360Google Scholar
- Hung LF, Tsai C-C, Chen S-J, Huang YS, Kuo-Huang LL (2016) Study of tension wood in the artificially inclined seedlings of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer and its biomechanical function of negative gravitropism. Trees - Struct Funct 30:609–625. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-015-1304-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hung LF, Tsai CC, Chen SJ, Huang YS, Kuo-Huang LL (2017) Strain distribution, growth eccentricity, and tension wood distribution in the plagiotropic and orthotropic branches of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. Trees - Struct Funct 31:149–164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-016-1464-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Michelot A, Simard S, Rathgeber C, Dufrene E, Damesin C (2012) Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics. Tree Physiol 32:1033–1043. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tps052 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Morellato LPC, Alberton B, Alvarado ST, Borges B, Buisson E, Camargo MGG, Cancian LF, Carstensen DW, Escobar DFE, Leite PTP, Mendoza I, Rocha NMWB, Soares NC, Silva TSF, Staggemeier VG, Streher AS, Vargas BC, Peres CA (2016) Linking plant phenology to conservation biology. Biol Conserv 195:60–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.12.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2016) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Čufar K, Cuny HE, Deslauriers A, Fonti P, Frank D, Gričar J, Gruber A, Huang JG, Jyske T, Kašpar J, King G, Krause C, Liang E, Mäkinen H, Morin H, Nöjd P, Oberhuber W, Prislan P, Rathgeber CBK, Saracino A, Swidrak I, Treml V (2016) Pattern of xylem phenology in conifers of cold ecosystems at the Northern Hemisphere. Glob Chang Biol 22:3804–3813. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13317 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Ryan JA, Ulrich JM (2017) xts: eXtensible time series. R package version 0.10–0Google Scholar
- Schweingruber FH (1996) Tree rings and environment: dendroecology. Paul Haupt AG Bern, BerneGoogle Scholar
- Yoshimura K, Hayashi S, Itoh T, Shimaji K (1981) Studies on the improvement of the pinning method for marking xylem growth I: minute examination of pin marks in Taeda Pine and other species. Wood Res Bull Wood Res Inst Kyoto Univ 67:1–16Google Scholar
- Yu H-M, Chang N-H, Ma F-C et al (2012) The growth performance of Cinnamomum kanehirai (in Chinese). For Res Newsl 19:39–42Google Scholar