Weed control modifies Tuber melanosporum mycelial expansion in young oak plantations
- 222 Downloads
Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) cultivation is a promising agro-forestry alternative for Mediterranean rural areas, but adequate weed control at seedling establishment still remains a challenge in black truffle plantations.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of several weed control strategies on early development of Quercus ilex seedlings and the symbiotic T. melanosporum.
Materials and methods
In a young black truffle-inoculated holm oak plantation, we assessed for 3 years the effects of two types of mechanical weed control and five mulches in a young Q. ilex plantation inoculated with T. melanosporum. Herbaceous cover, seedling growth and abundance of T. melanosporum mycelium, based on PCR analysis of soil DNA extracts using T. melanosporum-specific primers, were estimated to determine the effectiveness of these treatments in controlling weeds and supporting the growth of both the host tree and the target fungus.
The amount of T. melanosporum mycelium in the soil 30 cm around the seedlings was larger under double-layer white mulch than in the rest of treatments tested. Under the white colour mulches, which had the largest light reflection, we registered the cooler soil temperature, and the best weed control was observed on the single- and double-layer black truffles and double-layer white mulch.
The effects of double-layer white mulch on herbaceous cover, soil temperature, reflected light, and the expansion of T. melanosporum bring us closer to being able to substitute traditional tilling of truffle orchards for the less expensive mulching treatments.
KeywordsTuber melanosporum Quercus ilex Mulch Soil mycelium Weed control
We thank Lluís Bonet and Jordi Bonet for allowing us to use their truffle orchard to carry out this study and for their help in treatment application, C.R. Fischer for helpful suggestions and English support, and the reviewers and editors that helped improve the quality of this manuscript.
This study was partially funded by the Subdirección General de Proyectos de Investigación, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación of Spain (research grant AGL2010-22354-C02-0) and by the Direcció General de Desenvolupament Rural, Departament d’Agricultura, Ramaderia, Pesca, Alimentació i Medi Natural, Generalitat de Catalunya.
- Águeda B, Fernández-Toirán LM, de Miguel AM, Martínez Peña F (2010) Ectomycorrhizal status of a mature productive black truffle plantation. For Syst 19:89–97Google Scholar
- Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop evapotranspiration. Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Atkinson CJ, Dodds PA, Ford YY, Le Miere J, Taylor JM, Blake PS, Paul N (2006) Effects of cultivar, fruit number and reflected photosynthetically active radiation on Fragaria x ananassa productivity and fruit ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations. Ann Bot 97:429–441. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcj04610.1093/aob/mcj046 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bourrieres D, Ricard JM (2008) Effects on soil management on the evolution of young plants mycorrhized with Tuber melanosporum. 3° Congresso Internazionale Di Spoleto Sul Tartufo. Comunità Montana del monti Martani e del Serrano, Spoleto, p 102Google Scholar
- Colinas C, Capdevila JM, Oliach D, Fischer CR, Bonet JA (2007) Mapa d’aptitud per al cultiu de la tòfona negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt.) a Catalunya. CTFC, SolsonaGoogle Scholar
- Díaz-Pérez JC, Dean Batal K (2002) Colored plastic film mulches affect tomato growth and yield via changes in root-zone temperature. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 127:127–136Google Scholar
- Hytonen J, Jylha P (2005) Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality, growth and vole damages to Betula pendula planted on former agricultural land. Silva Fenn 39:365Google Scholar
- Le Tacon F, Zeller B, Plain C, Hossann C, Brechet C, Robin C (2013) Carbon transfer from the host to Tuber melanosporum mycorrhizas and ascocarps followed using a 13C pulse-labeling technique. PLoS One 8(5):e64626. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064626
- Lefevre C, Hall I (2001) The status of truffle cultivation: a global perspective. V International Congress on Hazelnut, ISHS, Corvallis, pp 513–520Google Scholar
- Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD, Schabengerger O (2006) Analysis of repeated measures data, in SAS for mixed models. 2nd. SAS Institute Inc. Carry, edn pp 159–202Google Scholar
- Peñuelas J, Filella I, Llusia J, Siscart D, Piñol J (1998) Comparative field study of spring and summer leaf gas exchange and photobiology of the Mediterranean trees Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia. J Exp Bot 49:229–238Google Scholar
- Ramsey F, Schafer D (2002) The statistical sleuth: a course in methods of data analysis, 2nd edn. Buxbury, Pacific GroveGoogle Scholar
- Reicosky DC, Allmaras RR, Shrestha A (2003) Advances in tillage research in North American cropping systems. In: Shrestha A (ed) Cropping systems: trends and advances Part I. Haworth, New York, pp 75–125Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. (1999) The MIXED procedure, in SAS/STAT V8 User’s Guide) SAS Institute Inc., Cary, pp 5234–5426Google Scholar