The effects of N-enriched rain and warmer soil on the ectomycorrhizae of black spruce remain inconclusive in the short term
- 241 Downloads
Warmer temperatures and anthropogenic N depositions are altering soil nutrient cycles and plant nutrition worldwide and are projected to rise dramatically in the future, particularly at the high latitudes. How much will such alterations affect symbiotic organisms such as ectomycorrhizae (ECM)?
The aim was to investigate the short-term effects of warmer soil temperatures and N-enriched precipitations on roots and ECM.
A field experiment was established during 2008–2010 in two black spruce (Picea mariana) stands of the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. The ECM of 12 trees per site were counted and identified by morphotyping.
After 3 years, soil heating markedly modified the proportions of vital root tips and ECM in the colder stand, while no effect of the N-enriched rain was observed on soil chemistry and consequently on roots and ECM. Density and ramification of root tips were not affected by the treatments.
The hypothesis that the treatments would alter the ECM was confirmed only partially in the colder stand. The type of application and amount of N supplied were unable to substantially modify in the short-term growth conditions of roots and ECM, explaining the observed results.
KeywordsBoreal forest Nitrogen Fungal diversity Morphotyping Picea mariana Soil temperature
The authors thank J. Allaire, C. Boivin, M.-J. Deschênes, F. Gionest, I. Grenon, D. Laprise, C. Lupi, P. Nadeau, G. Savard, M. Thibeault-Martel and A. Turcotte for technical support, J. A. Fortin and Y. Piché for their suggestions on sampling design and A. Garside for checking the English text.
This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Le Fond Vert du Ministère du Développement Durable, Environement, et Parc du Québec within the framework of the Action Plan 2006–2012 on climate change.
- Agerer R, Rambold G (2004–2011) DEEMY—an information system for characterization and determination of ectomycorrhizae [first posted on 1 June 2004, most recent update 10 January 2011]. Available from www.deemy.de (München, Germany). Accessed October 2012
- Campbell JL, Rustad LE, Boyer EW, Christopher SF, Driscoll CT, Fernandez IJ, Groffman PM, Houle D, Kiekbusch J, Magill AH, Mitchell MJ, Ollinger SV (2009) Consequences of climate change for biogeochemical cycling in forests of northeastern North America. Can J For Res 39:264–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gélinas-Pouliot M (2013) The fate of 15N-labeled ammonium nitrate applied on trees canopy in a mature balsam-fir stand, Québec. Master thesis, Université du Québec à ChicoutimiGoogle Scholar
- Goodman DM, Durall DM, Trofymow JA, Berch SM (eds) (1996) A manual of concise descriptions of North American ectomycorrhizae. Mycologue, SidneyGoogle Scholar
- Montecchio L, Causin R, Rossi S, Mutto Accordi S (2004) Changes in ectomycorrhizal diversity in a declining Quercus ilex coastal forest. Phytopatologia Mediterranea 43:26–34Google Scholar