Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 311–325 | Cite as

Volatile component profiles of conventional and lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk—a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study

  • Therese Jansson
  • Sidsel Jensen
  • Nina Eggers
  • Morten R. Clausen
  • Lotte B. Larsen
  • Colin Ray
  • Anja Sundgren
  • Henrik J. Andersen
  • Hanne Christine BertramEmail author
Original Paper


Lactose-hydrolyzed milk gains still increasing market share, and understanding the chemical characteristics of lactose-hydrolyzed milk products is important for the dairy industry. The aim of the present study was to identify and compare volatile compounds of commercial lactose-hydrolyzed and conventional ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk. For this purpose, the volatile compounds of lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose), conventional (100% lactose), and filtered (60% lactose) UHT-treated milk were extracted using dynamic headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 24 volatile compounds were identified including ketones, aldehydes, and sulfides. Overall, principal component analysis (PCA) showed grouping of the different milk types, with loadings indicating a higher concentration of ketones in conventional versus lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk, but PCA also indicated a marked batch-to-batch variation. Elucidation of individual volatile compounds detected also revealed that the content of ketones in general was higher in conventional UHT milk than in lactose-hydrolyzed milk; however, no significant differences in the volatile compound profiles could be identified between the various milk types as a result of the batch-to-batch variation. The present study highlights a useful analytical method based on dynamic headspace sampling and GC-MS to profile volatiles important for the flavor characteristics of lactose-hydrolyzed and conventional UHT milk. In addition, the present study reveals that a considerable batch-to-batch variation exists in industrially produced batches of lactose-hydrolyzed UHT milk, which must be considered an important challenge for the dairy industry.


Lactose-hydrolyzed milk UHT Milk batch variations Dynamic headspace sampling GC-MS 



Dynamic headspace sampling


Dimethyl disulfide


Dimethyl sulfide


Dimethyl sulfoxide


Dimethyl trisulfide


Family-wise error rate


Gas chromatograph


Internal standard


Linear mixed effect


Limit of detection


Limit of quantification


Maillard reaction


Mass spectrometry


Not detected


Not quantified


Principal component


Principal component analysis


Restricted maximum likelihood


Total ion current


Ultra-high temperature


Unit variance



The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Birgitte Foged. The present study is part of the Ph.D. work of Therese Jansson and was financially supported by Arla Foods Amba, Food Future Innovation (FFI), Danish Dairy Research Foundation, and Aarhus University.


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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Therese Jansson
    • 1
  • Sidsel Jensen
    • 1
  • Nina Eggers
    • 1
  • Morten R. Clausen
    • 1
  • Lotte B. Larsen
    • 2
  • Colin Ray
    • 3
  • Anja Sundgren
    • 3
  • Henrik J. Andersen
    • 4
  • Hanne Christine Bertram
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Research Center AarslevAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Research Centre FoulumAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Arla Foods Strategic Innovation CentreStockholmSweden
  4. 4.AarhusDenmark

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