Advertisement

Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 269–281 | Cite as

In vitro anti-atherogenic properties of traditional Greek cheese lipid fractions

  • S. E. Tsorotioti
  • C. NasopoulouEmail author
  • M. Detopoulou
  • E. Sioriki
  • C. A. Demopoulos
  • I. Zabetakis
Original Paper

Abstract

Given that platelet activating factor (PAF) is a crucial inflammatory phospholipid mediator that is implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis, the presence of PAF inhibitors in food reinforces their nutritional value in terms of protection against cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-atherogenic (anti-inflammatory) properties of two different types of Greek cheese: Kefalotyri and Ladotyri. Total lipids (TL) of both types of cheese samples were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer and separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) by countercurrent distribution. TPL were further separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). TL, TPL, TNL and the obtained polar lipid fractions after TLC separation were tested to determine their biological activity towards atherosclerosis based on the in vitro inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Both types of cheese samples exhibited strong biological activity, and their lipids were potent PAF inhibitors. Comparing the two types of cheese samples, Ladotyri cheese polar lipid fractions were found to exhibit stronger inhibitory properties than those of Kefalotyri cheese. The fact that both types of cheese were found to contain PAF inhibitors highlights their nutritional value in terms of cardio-protection.

Keywords

Cheese Polar lipids Platelet aggregation Atherosclerosis 

References

  1. Abd El-Salam M, Mohamed D (2009) The protective effect of processed cheese against hyperlipidemia in rats. Dairy Sci Tech 89:437–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antonopoulou S, Fragopoulou E, Karantonis HC, Mitsou E, Sitara M, Rementzis J, Mourelatos A, Ginis A, Phenekos C (2006) Effect of traditional Greek Mediterranean meals on platelet aggregation in normal subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Food 9(3):356–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antonopoulou S, Semidalas CE, Koussissis S, Demopoulos CA (1996) Platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists in foods: a study of lipids with PAF or anti-PAF-like activity in cow’s milk and yogurt. J Agric Food Chem 44:3047–3051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ataie-Jafari A, Larijani B, Alavi Majd H, Tahbaz F (2009) Cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Annal Nutr Metab 54(1):22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbieri G, Bolzoni L, Careri M, Mangia A, Parolari G, Spagnoli S, Virgili R (1994) Study of the volatile fraction of parmesan cheese. J Agric Food Chem 42:1170–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bligh E, Dyer W (1959) A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Phys 37:911–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chrysant SG, Chrysant GS (2013) An update on the cardiovascular pleiotropic effects of milk and milk products. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 15:503–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Contarini G, Povolo M (2013) Phospholipids in milk fat: composition, biological and technological significance, and analytical strategies. Int J Mol Sci 4:2808–2831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Covas MI (2007) Olive oil and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Res 55:175–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demopoulos CA, Karantonis H, Antonopoulou S (2003) Platelet activating factor—a molecular link between atherosclerosis theories. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech 105:705–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demopoulos CA, Pinckard RN, Hanahan DJ (1979) Platelet-activating factor. Evidence for 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phos-phoryl-choline as the active component (a new class of lipid chemical mediators). J Biol Chem 254:9355–9358Google Scholar
  12. Elwood P, Pickering J, Givens ID, Gallacher JE (2010) The consumption of milk and dairy foods and the incidence of vascular disease and diabetes: an overview of the evidence. Lipids 45:925–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galanos DS, Kapoulas VM (1962) Isolation of polar lipids from triglyceride mixtures. J Lipid Res 3:134–137Google Scholar
  14. GAIN (Global Agricultural Information Network) (2010) Report number GR1005. Greece Dairy 2010Google Scholar
  15. Hauff S, Vetter W (2009) Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids. Anal Chim Acta 636:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hjerpsted J, Leedo E, Tholstrup T (2011) Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 94(6):1479–1484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huth PJ, Park KM (2012) Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence. Adv Nutr 3(3):266–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaffarnik S, Ehlers I, Gröbner G, Schleucher J, Vetter W (2013) Two-dimensional 31P,1H NMR spectroscopic profiling of phospholipids in cheese and fish. J Agric Food Chem 61:7061–7069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kastorini CM, Milionis HJ, Goudevenos JA, Panagiotakos DB (2010) Mediterranean diet and coronary heart disease: is obesity a link?—a systematic review. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20:536–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Karantonis HC, Antonopoulou S, Perrea DN, Sokolis DP, Theocharis SE, Kavantzas N, Iliopoulos DG, Demopoulos CA (2006) In vivo antiatherogenic properties of olive oil and its constituent lipid classes in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16:174–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Naska A, Fouskakis D, Oikonomou E, Almeida MDV, Berg MA, Gedrich K, Moreiras O, Nelson M, Trygg K, Turrini A, Remaut AM, Volatier JL, Trichopoulou A, DAFNE participants (2006) Dietary patterns and their socio-demographic determinants in 10 European countries: data from the DAFNE databank. Eur J Clin Nutr 60:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nasopoulou C, Nomikos T, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I (2007) Comparison of antiatherogenic properties of lipids obtained from wild and cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Food Chem 100:560–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nasopoulou C, Karantonis HC, Perrea DN, Stamatios TE, Iliopoulos DG, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I (2010) In vivo anti-atherogenic properties of cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) polar lipid extracts in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Food Chem 120:831–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nasopoulou C, Stamatakis G, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I (2011) Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardioprotective properties of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Food Chem 129:1108–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nasopoulou C, Gogaki V, Panagopoulou E, Demopoulos CA, Zabetakis I (2013) Hen egg yolk lipid fractions with antiatherogenic properties. Anim Sci J 84:264–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nasopoulou C, Smith T, Detopoulou M, Tsikrika C, Papaharisis L, Barkas D, Zabetakis I (2014) Structural elucidation of olive pomace fed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) polar lipids with cardioprotective activities. Food Chem 145:1097–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Matalas AL, Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C (2005) Geographical influences on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the prevalence of acute coronary syndromes, in Greece: the CARDIO2000 study. Int J Cardiol 100:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Penna C, Bassino E, Alloatti G (2011) Platelet activating factor: the good and the bad in the ischemic/reperfused heart. Exp Biol Med 236:390–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramchandran L, Shah NP (2011) Yogurt can beneficially affect blood contributors of cardiovascular health status in hypertensive rats. J Food Sci 76(4):131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rogelj I (2000) Milk, dairy products, nutrition and health. Food Technol Biotechnol 38:143–147Google Scholar
  31. Tsantila N, Karantonis HC, Perrea DN, Theocharis SE, Iliopoulos DG, Antonopoulou S, Demopoulos CA (2007) Antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties of olive oil and olive pomace polar extracts in rabbits. Mediators Inflamm 2007:36204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Urpi-Sarda M, Casas R, Chiva-Blanch G, Romero-Mamani ES, Valderas-Martínez P, Arranz S, Andres-Lacueva C, Llorach R, Medina-Remón A, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Estruch R (2012) Virgin olive oil and nuts as key foods of the Mediterranean diet effects on inflammatory biomakers related to atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Res 65:577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Visioli F, Galli C (1998) The effect of minor constituents of olive oil on cardiovascular disease: new findings. Nutr Rev 56:42–147Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. E. Tsorotioti
    • 1
  • C. Nasopoulou
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Detopoulou
    • 1
  • E. Sioriki
    • 1
  • C. A. Demopoulos
    • 2
  • I. Zabetakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of ChemistryNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of ChemistryNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations