Dairy Science & Technology

, Volume 94, Issue 1, pp 33–49 | Cite as

Innovation in the Italian ice cream production: effect of different phospholipid emulsifiers

  • Massimiliano Rinaldi
  • Chiara Dall’AstaEmail author
  • Maria Paciulli
  • Stefano Guizzetti
  • Davide Barbanti
  • Emma ChiavaroEmail author
Original Paper


Artisanal Italian ice cream (called gelato) is one of the most appreciated Italian food specialties. Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids represent the most used emulsifiers for gelato but the demand for “clean label” products containing lower amount or no additives or stabilizers is continuously increasing among consumers. In this work, the impact of three phospholipid emulsifiers (soy, milk and rice phospholipids) was evaluated on physicochemical, thermal and flavour characteristics of a basic Italian gelato formulation in comparison to those of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, used as control. Control sample showed the highest overrun and unfreezable water values but also the lowest fat destabilization percentages. On the contrary, gelato added with soy phospholipids exhibited the greatest resistance to melt and high fat destabilization ratio being also harder than the others. Sample with rice phospholipids revealed a richer volatile profile with herbal and green notes. The lowest performances were displayed from gelato where milk phospholipids were added as emulsifier as this sample showed higher mix viscosity, green colour notes, lower overrun, hardness and stickiness values. During a 4-week storage in a domestic freezer, all samples hardened and became more yellow, showing a decrease of volatiles except for samples with rice phospholipids added. These findings may encourage further research on the use of soy and rice phospholipids as emulsifiers to improve their performances in gelato making, by testing their use alone or in combination at different levels.


Italian gelato Emulsifiers Physical properties Volatile compounds Storage 


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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Massimiliano Rinaldi
    • 1
  • Chiara Dall’Asta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maria Paciulli
    • 1
  • Stefano Guizzetti
    • 1
  • Davide Barbanti
    • 1
  • Emma Chiavaro
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze degli AlimentiUniversità degli Studi di ParmaParmaItaly

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