Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 381–403 | Cite as

Biology and ecology of the Flavescence dorée vector Scaphoideus titanus: a review

  • Julien Chuche
  • Denis Thiéry
Review Article


Flavescence dorée is a serious disease for European vine growers. Indeed, Flavescence dorée causes yield losses and lower grape quality. As a consequence, Flavescence dorée is costly and needs advanced control strategies. For instance, in 2005, 34 million Euro was given to Italian vine growers to compensate losses due to the disease. The infection by Flavescence dorée results from the association of a phytoplasma and the leafhopper vector, Scaphoideus titanus. Despite mandatory controls using insecticides, Flavescence dorée is still spreading in Europe. Here, we review the biology and ecology of S. titanus to suggest improved management techniques. The main findings are as follows. (1) The long-distance spread of S. titanus is mainly due to human activities, and all European vineyards are susceptible to be colonized. (2) S. titanus is an efficient vector because it can reach a high population level and it is specific to Vitis spp. (3) Current control and prophylaxis are insufficiently effective. (4) Variation in vector populations and vector capacities lead to differential risks of plant infection. Factors driving such population variations could be modeled to improve S. titanus control. (5) Feeding behavior is a key factor in the phytoplasma–vector relationship. (6) The infection risk is mainly limited by vector control. To decrease pesticide use, a cross survey of the vector population and of the infected stocks triggers mandatory treatments. (7) Alternative sustainable methods or strategies are required to reduce insecticide use and increase control efficiency. In the short term, new models could support the establishment of more sustainable pest management operations. In the long term, innovative techniques involving symbionts, mating disruption and a push–pull strategy could improve S. titanus and Flavescence dorée control with less environmental impact.


Scaphoideus titanus Grapevine Insect Vector Phytoplasma Leafhoppers 



We thank Dr Sylvie Malembic-Maher for comments on the manuscript, and Dr Mauro Jermini, Jacques Grosman, and Jean-Michel Trespaillé-Barrau for allowing us to quote personal unpublished observations. The surface treated by mating disruption in Italy was provided by Pr A. Lucchi. We are very grateful to all the European researchers who shared their knowledge with us and to Pascal Salar, UMR Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, for providing the pictures of S. titanus nymphs and adults. We also appreciate the constructive efforts of anonymous reviewers to improve our original manuscript. This work is part of the Labex COTE project and has been supported by grants from the Conseil Interprofessionnel des Vins de Bordeaux, the Aquitaine region and INRA Santé des Plantes et Environnement department.


  1. Alam U, Medlock J, Brelsfoard C, Pais R, Lohs C, Balmand S, Carnogursky J, Heddi A, Takac P, Galvani A, Aksoy S (2011) Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002415. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002415 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alma A, Bosco D, Danielli A, Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Arzone A (1997) Identification of phytoplasmas in eggs, nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on healthy plants. Insect Mol Biol 6:115–121. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.1997.tb00079.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alma A, Palermo S, Boccardo G, Conti M (2001) Transmission of Chrysanthemum yellows, a subgroup 16SrI-B phytoplasma, to grapevine by four leafhopper species. J Plant Pathol 83:181–187. doi: 10.4454/jpp.v83i3.1127 Google Scholar
  4. Angelini E, Negrisolo E, Clair D, Borgo M, Boudon-Padieu E (2003) Phylogenetic relationships among Flavescence dorée strains and related phytoplasmas determined by heteroduplex mobility assay and sequence of ribosomal and nonribosomal DNA. Plant Pathol 52:663–672. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2003.00917.x Google Scholar
  5. Arnaud G, Malembic-Maher S, Salar P, Bonnet P, Maixner M, Marcone C, Boudon-Padieu E, Foissac X (2007) Multilocus sequence typing confirms the close genetic interrelatedness of three distinct flavescence doree phytoplasma strain clusters and group 16SrV phytoplasmas infecting grapevine and alder in Europe. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:4001–4010. doi: 10.1128/aem.02323-06 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Audusseau H, Nylin S, Janz N (2013) Implications of a temperature increase for host plant range: predictions for a butterfly. Ecolo Evol 3:3021–3029. doi: 10.1002/ece3.696 Google Scholar
  7. Avramov Z, Ivanova I, Laginova M (2011) Screening for phytoplasma presence in leafhoppers and planthoppers collected in Bulgarian vineyards. Bull Insectol 64:S115–S116Google Scholar
  8. Baggiolini M, Canevascini V, Caccia R, Tencalla Y, Sobrio G (1968) Présence dans le vignoble du Tessin d’une cicadelle néarctique nouvelle pour la Suisse, Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Hom., Jassidae), vecteur possible de la flavescence dorée. Bull Soc Entomol Suisse 40:270–275Google Scholar
  9. Bagnoli B, Gargani E (2011) Survey on Scaphoideus titanus egg distribution on grapevine. IOBC/WPRS Bull 67:233–237Google Scholar
  10. Bagnoli B, Lucchi A (2006) Parasitoids of Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff.) in Tuscany. IOBC/WPRS Bull 29:139–142Google Scholar
  11. Bagnoli B, Ferretti L, Trivellone V, Nuccitelli L, Pasquini G (2008) Occurrence of Scaphoideus titanus in Latium region. Petria 18:304–308Google Scholar
  12. Barnett DE (1976) A revision of the Nearctic species of the genus Scaphoideus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Trans Am Entomol Soc 102:485–593Google Scholar
  13. Beanland L, Hoy CW, Miller SA, Nault LR (2000) Influence of aster yellows phytoplasma on the fitness of aster leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:271–276. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2000)093[0271:IOAYPO]2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
  14. Beanland L, Noble R, Wolf TK (2006) Spatial and temporal distribution of North American grapevine yellows disease and of potential vectors of the causal phytoplasmas in Virginia. Environ Entomol 35:332–344. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-35.2.332 Google Scholar
  15. Beirne BP (1956) Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) of Canada and Alaska. Can Entomol 88:1–180. doi: 10.4039/entm8802fv Google Scholar
  16. Belli G, Fortusini A, Rui D (1985) Recent spread of flavescence dorée and its vector in vineyards of Northern Italy. Phytopathol Mediterr 24:189–191Google Scholar
  17. Belli G, Bianco PA, Conti M (2010) Grapevine yellows in Italy: past, present and future. J Plant Pathol 92:303–326. doi: 10.4454/jpp.v92i2.172 Google Scholar
  18. Bernard P, Du Fretay G (1988) Dynamique de population de Scaphoideus titanus, vecteur de la Flavescence dorée dans l’Aude en 1987. Bull Tech Inf 433(434):457–464Google Scholar
  19. Bernard P, Du Fretay G, Gorguos M, Tassart V (1988) Hypothèse d’une deuxième génération de Scaphoideus titanus. Def Veg 251:17–21Google Scholar
  20. Bertaccini A, Duduk B (2009) Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. Phytopathol Mediterr 48:355–378Google Scholar
  21. Bertin S, Guglielmino CR, Karam N, Gomulski LM, Malacrida AR, Gasperi G (2007) Diffusion of the Nearctic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball in Europe: a consequence of human trading activity. Genetica 131:275–285. doi: 10.1007/s10709-006-9137-y PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bian G, Joshi D, Dong Y, Lu P, Zhou G, Pan X, Xu Y, Dimopoulos G, Xi Z (2013) Wolbachia invades Anopheles stephensi populations and induces refractoriness to Plasmodium infection. Science 340:748–751. doi: 10.1126/science.1236192 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bianco PA, Fortusini A, Scattini G, Casati P, Carraro S, Torresin GC (2000) Prove di risanamento di materiale viticolo affetto da Flavescenza dorata mediante termoterapia. Inf Fitopatol 50:43–49Google Scholar
  24. Bonfils J, Schvester D (1960) Les cicadelles (Homoptera Auchenorhyncha) dans leurs rapports avec la vigne dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Ann Epiphyt 3:325–336Google Scholar
  25. Bosco D, Marzachi C (2011) Flavescenza dorata in cv Barbera e Nebbiolo: incidenza, risanamento e suscettibilita al patogeno. Prot Col 2:21–23Google Scholar
  26. Bosco D, Mori N (2013) “Flavescence dorée” vector control in Italy. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes 3:40–43. doi: 10.5958/j.2249-4677.3.1.009 Google Scholar
  27. Bosco D, Alma A, Arzone A (1997) Studies on population dynamics and spatial distribution of leafhoppers in vineyards (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ann Appl Biol 130:1–11. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1997.tb05778.x Google Scholar
  28. Bosio G, Rossi A (2001) Ciclo biologico in Piemonte di Scaphoideus titanus. Inf Agrar 57:75–78Google Scholar
  29. Boubals D, Caudwell A (1971) Une épidémie de jaunisse dans le vignoble corse: probablement la flavescence dorée. Prog Agric Vitic 88:355–364Google Scholar
  30. Boudon-Padieu E (2000) Cicadelle vectrice de la flavescence dorée, Scaphoideus titanus Ball, 1932. In: Stockel J (ed) Ravageurs de la vigne. Féret, Bordeaux, pp 110–120Google Scholar
  31. Boudon-Padieu E (2002) Flavescence dorée of the grapevine: knowledge and new developments in epidemiology, etiology and diagnosis. In: Canova A (ed) ATTI Giornate Fitopatologiche, Baselga di Piné (Trento), Italy, 2002. pp 15–34Google Scholar
  32. Boudon-Padieu E, Larrue J, Caudwell A (1989) ELISA and dot-blot detection of Flavescence dorée-MLO in individual leafhopper vectors during latency and inoculative state. Curr Microbiol 19:357–364. doi: 10.1007/BF01570882 Google Scholar
  33. Boudon-Padieu E, Larrue J, Caudwell A (1990) Serological detection and characterization of grapevine Flavescence dorée MLO and other plant MLOs. IOM Lett 1:217–218Google Scholar
  34. Bressan A, Girolami V, Boudon-Padieu E (2005a) Reduced fitness of the leafhopper vector Scaphoideus titanus exposed to Flavescence dorée phytoplasma. Entomol Exp Appl 115:283–290. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2005.00240.x Google Scholar
  35. Bressan A, Spiazzi S, Girolami V, Boudon-Padieu E (2005b) Acquisition efficiency of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma by Scaphoideus titanus Ball from infected tolerant or susceptible grapevine cultivars or experimental host plants. Vitis 44:143–146Google Scholar
  36. Bressan A, Larrue J, Boudon-Padieu E (2006) Patterns of phytoplasma-infected and infective Scaphoideus titanus leafhoppers in vineyards with high incidence of Flavescence dorée. Entomol Exp Appl 119:61–69. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2006.00391.x Google Scholar
  37. Budinščak Ž, Križanac I, Mikec I, Seljak G, Škorić D (2005) Vektori fitoplazmi vinove loze u Hrvatskoj. Glas Biljn Zaštite 5:240–245Google Scholar
  38. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (2009) Directive D-94–34 May 27, 2009 (2nd revision) import requirements for grapevine propagative material.–34/eng/1321940472117/1321940673198#c4. Accessed 09 October 2012.
  39. Cara C, Trivellone V, Linder C, Junkert J, Jermini M (2013) Influence de la gestion des repousses du tronc et du bois de taille sur les densites de Scaphoideus titanus. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 45:114–119Google Scholar
  40. Cardeña R, Ashburner GR, Oropeza C (2003) Identification of RAPDs associated with resistance to lethal yellowing of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) palm. Sci Hortic 98:257–263. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4238(02)00162-0 Google Scholar
  41. Carle P (1965) Relations alimentaires entre Malacocoris chlorizans Pz (Hémipt. Hétérop. "Miridae") et Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Hémipt. Homopt. "Jassidae") sur les Vitis dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Rev Zool Agr Appl 7–9:72–78Google Scholar
  42. Carle P, Moutous G (1965) Observations sur le mode de nutrition sur vigne de quatre espèces de cicadelles. Ann Epiphyt 16:333–354Google Scholar
  43. Carraro L, Loi N, Kuszala C, Clair D, Boudon-Padieu E, Refatti E (1994) On the ability-inability of Scaphoideus titanus to transmit different grapevine yellow agents. Vitis 33:231–234Google Scholar
  44. Carton Y, Sorensen C, Smith J, Smith E (2007) Une coopération exemplaire entre entomologistes français et américains pendant la crise du Phylloxera en France (1868–1895). Ann Soc Entomol Fr 43:103–125Google Scholar
  45. Caudwell A (1957) Deux années d’études sur la Flavescence dorée, nouvelle maladie grave de la vigne. Ann Amelior Plant 4:359–393Google Scholar
  46. Caudwell A (1964) Identification d’une nouvelle maladie à virus de la vigne, la “Flavescence dorée”. Etude des phénomènes de localisation des symptômes et de rétablissement. Ann Epiphyt 15(Hors Série 1), 193 ppGoogle Scholar
  47. Caudwell A, Larrue J (1986) La flavescence dorée dans le Midi de la France et dans le Bas-Rhône. Prog Agric Vitic 103:517–523Google Scholar
  48. Caudwell A, Kuszala C, Bachelier JC, Larrue J (1970) Transmission de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne aux plantes herbacées par l’allongement du temps d’utilisation de la cicadelle Scaphoideus littoralis BALL et l’étude de sa survie sur un grand nombre d’espèces végétales. Ann Pytopathol 2:415–428Google Scholar
  49. Caudwell A, Larrue J, Kuszala C, Bachelier JC (1971) Pluralité des jaunisses de la vigne. Ann Pytopathol 3:95–105Google Scholar
  50. Caudwell A, Brun P, Fleury A, Larrue J (1972) Les traitements ovicides contre la cicadelle vectrice, Scaphoideus littoralis (Ball), leur intérêt dans la lutte contre la flavescence dorée en Corse et dans les autres régions. Vignes Vins 21:5–10Google Scholar
  51. Caudwell A, Moutous G, Larrue J, Fos A, Blancon G, Schick JP (1974) Les épidémies de Flavescence dorée en Armagnac et en Corse et les nouvelles perspectives de lutte contre le vecteur par des traitements ovicides d’hiver. Bull Tech Inf 294:783–794Google Scholar
  52. Caudwell A, Larrue J, Valat C, Grenan S (1990) Les traitements à l’eau chaude des bois de vigne atteints de la Flavescence dorée. Prog Agric Vitic 107:281–286Google Scholar
  53. Caudwell A, Larrue J, Boudon-Padieu E, McLean GD (1997) Flavescence dorée elimination from dormant wood of grapevines by hot-water treatment. Aust J Grape Wine Res 3:21–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0238.1997.tb00112.x Google Scholar
  54. Cazenove R, Planas R (1991) Lutte contre la flavescence dorée de la vigne dans le cadre de l’agriculture biologique. Prog Agric Viticole 108:44–46Google Scholar
  55. Chireceanu C, Ploaie PG, Gutue M, Nicolae I, Stan C, Comsa M (2011) Detection of the Auchenorrhyncha fauna associated with grapevine displaying yellows symptoms in Romania. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 46:253–260. doi: 10.1556/APhyt.46.2011.2.9 Google Scholar
  56. Christensen NM, Axelsen KB, Nicolaisen M, Schulz A (2005) Phytoplasmas and their interactions with hosts. Trends Plant Sci 10:526–535. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2005.09.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Chuche J (2010) Comportement de Scaphoideus titanus, conséquences spatiales et démographiques. Ph.D., Bordeaux University, Bordeaux. Available at
  58. Chuche J, Thiéry D (2009) Cold winter temperatures condition the egg-hatching dynamics of a grape disease vector. Naturwissenschaften 96:827–834. doi: 10.1007/s00114-009-0541-x PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Chuche J, Thiéry D (2012) Egg incubation temperature differently affects female and male hatching dynamics and larval fitness in a leafhopper. Ecol Evol 2:732–739. doi: 10.1002/ece3.89 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Chuche J, Boursault A, Thiery D (2011a) Preliminary study of the aggregative behaviour of Scaphoideus titanus larvae. IOBC/WPRS Bull 67:239–244Google Scholar
  61. Chuche J, Sauvion N, Thiery D (2011b) Electropenetrography, a tool to investigate the feeding behaviour of sucking insects: development of this technique to Scaphoideus titanus. IOBC/WPRS Bull 67:299–303Google Scholar
  62. Chuche J, Thiery D, Mazzoni V (2011c) Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication? Naturwissenschaften 98:639–642. doi: 10.1007/s00114-011-0808-x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Clerc L, Linder C, Gunthart H (1997) Première observation en Suisse romande de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera, Jassidae), vecteur de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboricult Hortic 29:245–247Google Scholar
  64. Čokl A, Virant-Doberlet M (2003) Communication with substrate-borne signals in small plant-dwelling insects. Ann Rev Entomol 48:29–50. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.48.091801.112605 Google Scholar
  65. Compton SG (2002) Sailing with the wind: dispersal by small flying insects. Dispersal ecology. Blackwell Science Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Cook SM, Khan ZR, Pickett JA (2007) The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Ann Rev Entomol 52:375–400. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.52.110405.091407 Google Scholar
  67. Cook PE, McMeniman CJ, O’Neill SL (2008) Modifying insect population age structure to control vector-borne disease. In: Aksoy S (ed) Transgenesis and the management of vector-borne disease, vol 627, Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Springer, New York, pp 126–140. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-78225-6_11 Google Scholar
  68. Cosvir XI (2013) Fitofarmaci e Sostanze Attive. Centro Ricerca Per la Patologia Vegetale. Ministero delle politiche agricole alimentari e forestali Unità dirigenziale COSVIR XI - Servizio fitosanitario centrale. Accessed 04 April 2013
  69. Cravedi P, Mazzoni E, Cervato P (1993) Osservazioni sulla biologia di Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Redia 76:57–70Google Scholar
  70. Credi R (1989) Flavescenza dorata della vite in Emilia-Romagna: evoluzione della mallattia nelle piante e suoi effetti sulla produczione e sullo sviluppo vegetativo. Phytopathol Mediterr 28:113–121Google Scholar
  71. Crotti E, Damiani C, Pajoro M, Gonella E, Rizzi A, Ricci I, Negri I, Scuppa P, Rossi P, Ballarini P, Raddadi N, Marzorati M, Sacchi L, Clementi E, Genchi M, Mandrioli M, Bandi C, Favia G, Alma A, Daffonchio D (2009) Asaia, a versatile acetic acid bacterial symbiont, capable of cross-colonizing insects of phylogenetically distant genera and orders. Environ Microbiol 11:3252–3264. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02048.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Dalin P (2011) Diapause induction and termination in a commonly univoltine leaf beetle (Phratora vulgatissima). Insect Sci 18:443–450. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01417.x Google Scholar
  73. D’Amelio R, Marzachi C, Bosco D (2007) Double infection of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' and “flavescence dorée” phytoplasma in the vector Euscelidius variegatus. Bull Insectol 60:223–224Google Scholar
  74. D’Amelio R, Palermo S, Marzachi C, Bosco D (2008) Influence of Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma on the fitness of two of its leafhopper vectors, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus and Euscelidius variegatus. Bull Insectol 61:349–354Google Scholar
  75. Daniel C, Pfammatter W, Kehrli P, Wyss E (2005) Processed kaolin as an alternative insecticide against the European pear sucker, Cacopsylla pyri (L.). J Appl Entomol 129:363–367. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2005.00981.x Google Scholar
  76. Danise B, Griffo R, Pesapane G, Scognamiglio G, Tropiano F (2005) Presenza massiccia di scafoideo in Campania (a large-scale presence of Scaphoideus in Campania). Inf Agrar 61:73–75Google Scholar
  77. Daugherty MP, Lopes JRS, Almeida RPP (2010) Vector within-host feeding preference mediates transmission of a heterogeneously distributed pathogen. Ecol Entomol 35:350–366. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2010.01189.x Google Scholar
  78. de Sousa E, Casati P, Cardoso F, Baltazar C, Durante G, Quaglino F, Bianco PA (2010) Flavescence dorée phytoplasma affecting grapevine (Vitis vinifera) newly reported in Portugal. Plant Pathol 59:398–398. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02130.x Google Scholar
  79. Decante D, van Helden M (2006) Population ecology of Empoasca vitis (Gothe) and Scaphoideus titanus (Ball) in Bordeaux vineyards: influence of migration and landscape. Crop Prot 25:696–704. doi: 10.1016/j.cropo.2005.09.016 Google Scholar
  80. Decoin M, Herlemont B, Chiron MF, Trespaille-Barrau JM, Speich P, Girardet C, Constant N (2005) Flavescence dorée la quadrature de la cicadelle: quatre avis de recherche pour diminuer le nombre de traitements insecticides sur la vigne en preservant leur efficacité. Phytoma 586:29–31Google Scholar
  81. Delic D, Seljak G, Martin M, Ermacora P, Carraro L, Myrta A, Duric G (2007) Surveys for grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bull Insectol 60:369–370Google Scholar
  82. Della Giustina W (1989) Homoptères Cicadellidae volume 3, compléments aux ouvrages d’Henri Ribaut. Faune de France 73. Fédération française des sociétés de sciences naturelles, ParisGoogle Scholar
  83. Delong DM (1948) The leafhoppers, or Cicadellidae, of Illinois (Eurymelinae - Balcluthinae). Bull Ill Nat Hist Surv 24:91–376Google Scholar
  84. Der Z, Koczor S, Zsolnai B, Ember I, Kolber M, Bertaccini A, Alma A (2007) Scaphoideus titanus identified in Hungary. Bull Insectol 60:199–200Google Scholar
  85. DRAAF-SRAL Champagne-Ardennes, CIVC (2012) Jaunisses à phytoplasmes de la vigne. Flavescence dorée ou bois noir, bilan des prospections 2012. Bulletin de Santé du Végétal Vigne. BSV spécifique du 21 décembre 2013Google Scholar
  86. Drobnjakovic T, Peric P, Marcic D, Picciau L, Alma A, Mitrovic J, Duduk B, Bertaccini A (2011) Leafhoppers and cixiids in phytoplasma-infected carrot fields: species composition and potential phytoplasma vectors. Pestic Fitomedicina 25:311–318. doi: 10.2298/pif1004311d Google Scholar
  87. Du T, Wang Y, Hu QX, Chen J, Liu S, Huang WJ, Lin ML (2005) Transgenic Paulownia expressing shiva-1 gene has increased resistance to Paulownia witches’ broom disease. J Integr Plant Biol 47:1500–1506. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00168.x Google Scholar
  88. Duduk B, Botti S, Ivanovic M, Krstic B, Dukic N, Bertaccini A (2004) Identification of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Serbia. J Phytopathol 152:575–579. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2004.00898.x Google Scholar
  89. Dufour MC, Garcia C, Verpy A, Van Helden M (2008) Aménagement, en Gironde, de la lutte contre la Flavescence dorée pour une diminution des intrants phytosanitaires. Rev Fr Oenol 228:228Google Scholar
  90. Dupraz P, Schaub L (2007) Lutte contre le phytoplasme de la flavescence dorée: l’eau chaude a été réinventée! Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 39:113–115Google Scholar
  91. Duval J, Weill A (2007) Manuel des intrants bio: un recueil des intrants commerciaux autorisés en production végétale biologique et disponibles au Québec. Club agroenvironnemental Bio-Action, NapiervilleGoogle Scholar
  92. Ebbert MA, Nault LR (2001) Survival in Dalbulus leafhopper vectors improves after exposure to maize stunting pathogens. Entomol Exp Appl 100:311–324. doi: 10.1046/j.1570-7458.2001.00878.x Google Scholar
  93. Elliot SL, Adler FR, Sabelis MW (2003) How virulent should a parasite be to its vector? Ecology 84:2568–2574. doi: 10.1890/02-8013 Google Scholar
  94. E-phy (2013) Le catalogue des produits phytopharmaceutiques et de leurs usages des matières fertilisantes et des supports de culture homologués en France. Ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Agroalimentaire. Accessed 04 April 2013
  95. EPPO/CABI (1997) Quarantine pests for Europe, 2nd edn. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  96. Eriksson A, Anfora G, Lucchi A, Virant-Doberlet M, Mazzoni V (2011) Inter-plant vibrational communication in a leafhopper insect. PLoS ONE 6. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019692
  97. Eriksson A, Anfora G, Lucchi A, Lanzo F, Virant-Doberlet M, Mazzoni V (2012) Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new pethod of pest management. PLoS ONE 7:5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032954 Google Scholar
  98. Eveillard S, Labroussaa F, Salar P, Danet JL, Hevin C, Perrin M, Masson J, Foissac X, Malembic-Maher S (2012) Looking for resistance to the Flavescence doree disease among Vitis vinifera cultivars and other Vitis species. In: Proceedings of the 17th Congress of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG), Davis, California, USA, 7–14 October 2012. pp 234–235Google Scholar
  99. Filippin L, Jovi J, Cvrkovi T, Forte V, Clair D, Tosevski I, Boudon-Padieu E, Borgo M, Angelini E (2009) Molecular characteristics of phytoplasmas associated with Flavescence dorée in clematis and grapevine and preliminary results on the role of Dictyophara europaea as a vector. Plant Pathol 58:826–837. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02092.x Google Scholar
  100. Forte V, Borgo M, Dalla Cia L, Angelini E (2009) High occurence of Scaphoideus titanus adults on wild rootstocks in Nort Eastern Italy. In: Extended abstracts 16th Meeting of ICVG, Dijon, France, 31 Aug-4 Sept 2009. Le Progrès Agricole et Viticole, pp 164–165Google Scholar
  101. Frago E, Dicke M, Godfray HCJ (2012) Insect symbionts as hidden players in insect–plant interactions. Trends Ecol Evol 27:705–711. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.08.013 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Frausin C (2000) Flavescenza dorata e legno nero della vite in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. Inf Agrar 56:65–72Google Scholar
  103. Galetto L, Marzachi C, Marques R, Graziano C, Bosco D (2011) Effects of temperature and CO2 on phytoplasma multiplication pattern in vector and plant. Bull Insectol 64:S151–S152Google Scholar
  104. Garcia Salazar C, Whalon ME, Rahardja U (1991) Temperature-dependent pathogenicity of the X-disease mycoplasma-like organism to its vector, Paraphlepsius irroratus (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Environ Entomol 20:179–184Google Scholar
  105. Ge Q, Wen F (2006) Predicting the potential geographical distribution of flavescence doree and its vector Scaphoideus titanus Ball in China using DIVA-GIS. Acta Phytophylacica Sin 33:51–58Google Scholar
  106. Gibson LP (1973) An annoted list of the Cicadellidae and Fulgoridae of Elm. USDA Forest Service Research Paper NE-278. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper DarbyGoogle Scholar
  107. Granett J, Walker MA, Kocsis L, Omer AD (2001) Biology and management of grape phylloxera. Ann Rev Entomol 46:387–412. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.387 Google Scholar
  108. Gruber BR, Daugherty MP (2013) Understanding the effects of multiple sources of seasonality on the risk of pathogen spread to vineyards: vector pressure, natural infectivity, and host recovery. Plant Pathol 62:194–204. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02611.x Google Scholar
  109. Gusberti M, Jermini M, Wyss E, Linder C (2008) Efficacité d’insecticides contre Scaphoideus titanus en vignobles biologiques et effets secondaires. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 40:173–177Google Scholar
  110. Hamilton KGA (1983) Introduced and native leafhoppers common to the Old and New worlds (Rhynchota: Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Can Entomol 115:473–511. doi: 10.4039/Ent115473-5 Google Scholar
  111. Hill GT, Sinclair WA (2000) Taxa of leafhoppers carrying phytoplasmas at sites of ash yellows occurrence in New York State. Plant Dis 84:134–138. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.2.134 Google Scholar
  112. Hurd H (2003) Manipulation of medically important insect vectors by their parasites. Ann Rev Entomol 48:141–161. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.48.091801.112722 Google Scholar
  113. Jarausch W, Lansac M, Bliot C, Dosba F (1999) Phytoplasma transmission by in vitro graft inoculation as a basis for a preliminary screening method for resistance in fruit trees. Plant Pathol 48:283–287. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.1999.00326.x Google Scholar
  114. Jarausch W, Angelini E, Eveillard S, Malembic-Maher S (2013) Management of European fruit tree and grapevine phytoplasma diseases through genetic resistance. Phytopathogenic Mollicutes 3:16–24. doi: 10.5958/j.2249-4677.3.1.005 Google Scholar
  115. Jeger MJ, Holt J, Bosch FVD, Madden LV (2004) Epidemiology of insect-transmitted plant viruses: modelling disease dynamics and control interventions. Physiol Entomol 29:291–304. doi: 10.1111/j.0307-6962.2004.00394.x Google Scholar
  116. Jermini M, Rossi A, Baillod M (1992) Study of trapping of the cicadellid Scaphoideus titanus Ball with the assistance of yellow traps. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 24:235–239Google Scholar
  117. Jermini M, D’Adda G, Baumgartner J, Lozzia GC, Baillod M (1993) Nombre des pièges englués necessaires pour estimer la densité relative des populations de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus Ball en vignoble. Boll Zool Agrar Bachic 25:91–102Google Scholar
  118. Jermini M, Gusberti M, Linder C, Marazzi C, Colombi L (2007) IPM and organic control strategies against Scaphoideus titanus in Switzerland. Paper presented at the European meeting of the IOBC/WPRS working group "Integrated Protection in Viticulture", Marsala (Italy), 25–27 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  119. Jonsson AM, Harding S, Krokene P, Lange H, Lindelow A, Okland B, Ravn HP, Schroeder LM (2011) Modelling the potential impact of global warming on Ips typographus voltinism and reproductive diapause. Clim Change 109:695–718. doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0038-4 Google Scholar
  120. Krnjajic S, Mitrovic M, Cvrkovic T, Jovic J, Petrovic A, Forte V, Angelini E, Tosevski I (2007) Occurrence and distribution of Scaphoideus titanus in multiple outbreaks of “flavescence dorée” in Serbia. Bull Insectol 60:197–198Google Scholar
  121. Kuszala C (1986) Influence du sexe et de l’âge des insectes vecteurs injectés dans l’épreuve d’infectivité des jaunisses des plantes. Mesure radiographique du volume injecté à Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum). Agronomie 6:591–598. doi: 10.1051/agro:19860612 Google Scholar
  122. Laimer M, Lemaire O, Herrbach E, Goldschmidt V, Minafra A, Bianco P, Wetzel T (2009) Resistance to viruses, phytoplasmas and their vectors in the grapevine in Europe. J Plant Pathol 91:7–23. doi: 10.4454/jpp.v91i1.620 Google Scholar
  123. Laurent J, Agulhon R La flavescence dorée de la vigne. Situation et évolution de la maladie et de la cicadelle vectrice dans le vignoble français. In: Cavalloro R (ed) Plant-protection problems and prospects of integrated control in viticulture, Lisboa-Vila Real, 6–9 June 1989. International Organization for Biological and Integrated, Control, pp 489–496Google Scholar
  124. LeCaherec F, Guillam MT, Beuron F, Cavalier A, Thomas D, Gouranton J, Hubert JF (1997) Aquaporin-related proteins in the filter chamber of homopteran insects. Cell Tissue Res 290:143–151. doi: 10.1007/s004410050916 Google Scholar
  125. Lee IM, Davis RE, Gundersen-Rindal DE (2000) Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annu Rev Microbiol 54:221–255. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.221 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lefol C, Caudwell A, Lherminier J, Larrue J (1993) Attachment of the flavescence dorée pathogen (MLO) to leafhopper vectors and other insects. Ann Appl Biol 123:611–622. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1993.tb04931.x Google Scholar
  127. Lefol C, Lherminier J, Boudon-Padieu E, Larrue J, Louis C, Caudwell A (1994) Propagation of flavescence dorée MLO (mycoplasma-like organism) in the leafhopper vector Euscelidius variegatus Kbm. J Invertebr Pathol 63:285–293Google Scholar
  128. Lemon SM, Sparling PF, Hamburg MA, Relman DA, Choffnes ER, Mack A (2008) Vector-borne diseases: understanding the environmental, human health, and ecological connections. Workshop summary. National Academies Press (US), Washington (DC)Google Scholar
  129. Lessio F, Alma A (2004a) Dispersal patterns and chromatic response of Scaphoideus titanus ball (Homoptera Cicadellidae), vector of the phytoplasma agent of grapevine flavescence dorée. Agric For Entomol 6:121–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2004.00212.x Google Scholar
  130. Lessio F, Alma A (2004b) Seasonal and daily movement of Scaphoideus titanus ball (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Environ Entomol 33:1689–1694. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X-33.6.1689 Google Scholar
  131. Lessio F, Alma A (2006) Spatial distribution of nymphs of Scaphoideus titanus (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in grapes, and evaluation of sequential sampling plans. J Econ Entomol 99:578–582. doi: 10.1603/0022-0493-99.2.578 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lessio F, Tedeschi R, Alma A (2007) Presence of Scaphoideus titanus on American grapevine in woodlands, and infection with “flavescence dorée” phytoplasmas. Bull Insectol 60:373–374Google Scholar
  133. Lessio F, Borgogno Mondino E, Alma A (2009b) Spatial correlation of Scaphoideus titanus Ball adults on European grapevine at a plot scale: a case study. In: Extended abstracts 16th Meeting of ICVG, Dijon, 31 Aug–4 Sept 2009. Le Progrès Agricole et Viticole, pp 166–167.Google Scholar
  134. Lessio F, Tedeschi R, Pajoro M, Alma A (2009b) Seasonal progression of sex ratio and phytoplasma infection in Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Bull Entomol Res 99:377–383. doi: 10.1017/S0007485308006457 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Linder C, Jermini M (2007) Biologie et distribution du vecteur de la flavescence dorée dans les vignobles. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 97:97–101Google Scholar
  136. Linder C, Schaub L, Klotzli-Estermann F (2010) Efficacité du traitement a l’eau chaude contre les oeufs de Scaphoideus titanus, vecteur de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 42:132–135Google Scholar
  137. Logan JA, Regniere J, Powell JA (2003) Assessing the impacts of global warming on forest pest dynamics. Front Ecol Environ 1:130–137. doi: 10.2307/3867985 Google Scholar
  138. Lucchi A, Mazzoni V, Presern J, Virant-Doberlet M (2004) Mating behaviour of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Paper presented at the 3rd European Hemiptera Congress, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 8–11 JuneGoogle Scholar
  139. Madden LV, Nault LR (1983) Differential pathogenicity of corn stunting mollicutes to leafhopper vectors in Dalbulus and Baldulus species. Phytopathology 73:1608–1614. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-73-1608 Google Scholar
  140. Maggi F, Marzachì C, Bosco D (2013) A stage-structured model of Scaphoideus titanus in vineyards. Environ Entomol 42:181–193. doi: 10.1603/en12216 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Magud B, Tosevski I (2004) Scaphoideus titanus Ball. (Homoptera, Cicadellidae): a new pest in Serbia. Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor) 32:348–352Google Scholar
  142. Maixner M Risks posed by the spread and dissemination of grapevine pathogens and their vectors. In: Alford DV, Backhaus GF (eds) Plant protection and plant health in Europe: introduction and spread of invasive species, Alton, UK, 9 June 2005. British Crop Protection Council, pp 141–146Google Scholar
  143. Maixner M, Pearson RC, Boudon-Padieu E, Caudwell A (1993) Scaphoideus titanus, a possible vector of Grapevine Yellows in New York. Plant Dis 77:408–413. doi: 10.1094/PD-77-0408 Google Scholar
  144. Maixner M, Reinert W, Darimont H (2000) Transmission of grapevine yellows by Oncopsis alni (Schrank) (Auchenorrhyncha : Macropsinae). Vitis 39:83–84Google Scholar
  145. Malagnini V, Pedrazzoli F, Gualandri V, Forno F, Zasso R, Pozzebon A, Ioriatti C (2010) A study of the effects of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' on the psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). J Invertebr Pathol 103:65–67. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2009.11.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Malausa JC, Sentenac G (2011) Parasitoïdes de Scaphoideus titanus. In: Sentenac G (ed) La faune Auxiliaire des vignobles de France. France Agricole, Paris, pp 143–146Google Scholar
  147. Malausa JC, Nusillard B, Giuge L (2003) Lutte biologique contre la cicadelle vectrice de la flavescence dorée. Phytoma 565:24–27Google Scholar
  148. Malembic-Maher S, Le Gall F, Danet JL, de Borne FD, Bove JM, Garnier-Semancik M (2005) Transformation of tobacco plants for single-chain antibody expression via apoplastic and symplasmic routes, and analysis of their susceptibility to stolbur phytoplasma infection. Plant Sci 168:349–358. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.08.008 Google Scholar
  149. Mannini F (2007) Hot water treatment and field coverage of mother plant vineyards to prevent propagation material from phytoplasma infections. Bull Insectol 60:311–312Google Scholar
  150. Maramorosch K, Jensen DD (1963) Harmful and beneficial effects of plant viruses in insects. Annu Rev Microbiol 17:495–530. doi: 10.1146/annurev.mi.17.100163.002431 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Marchesini E, Monta LD (1994) Observations on natural enemies of Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Venetian vineyards. Boll Zool Agrar Bachic 26:201–230Google Scholar
  152. Marko V, Blommers LHM, Bogya S, Helsen H (2008) Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid. J Appl Entomol 132:26–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2007.01233.x Google Scholar
  153. Marzorati M, Alma A, Sacchi L, Pajoro M, Palermo S, Brusetti L, Raddadi N, Balloi A, Tedeschi R, Clementi E, Corona S, Quaglino F, Bianco PA, Beninati T, Bandi C, Daffonchio D (2006) A novel bacteroidetes symbiont is localized in Scaphoideus titanus, the insect vector of flavescence dorée in Vitis vinifera. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:1467–1475. doi: 10.1128/AEM.72.2.1467-1475.2006 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Maw HEL, Foottit RG, Hamilton KGA, Scudder GGE (2000) Checklist of the Hemiptera of Canada and Alaska. NRC Research Press, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  155. Mayer CJ, Vilcinskas A, Gross J (2008) Pathogen-induced release of plant allomone manipulates vector insect behavior. J Chem Ecol 34:1518–1522. doi: 10.1007/s10886-008-9564-6 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mazzoni V, Ioriatti C, Trona F, Lucchi A, De Cristofaro A, Anfora G (2009a) Study on the role of olfaction in host plant detection of Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs. J Econ Entomol 102:974–980. doi: 10.1603/029.102.0316 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Mazzoni V, Lucchi A, Cokl A, Presern J, Virant-Doberlet M (2009b) Disruption of the reproductive behaviour of Scaphoideus titanus by playback of vibrational signals. Entomol Exp Appl 133:174–185. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2009.00911.x Google Scholar
  158. Mazzoni V, Prešern J, Lucchi A, Virant-Doberlet M (2009c) Reproductive strategy of the Nearctic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Bull Entomol Res 99:401–413. doi: 10.1017/S0007485308006408 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Mazzoni V, Trona F, Ioriatti C, Lucchi A, Eriksson A, Anfora G (2011) Attractiveness of different colours to Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) adults. IOBC/WPRS Bull 67:281–284Google Scholar
  160. Metcalf ZP (1967) General catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle VI. Cicadelloidea. Part 10. Section III. Euscelidae. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service, Washington (DC)Google Scholar
  161. Morone C, Boveri M, Giosue S, Gotta P, Rossi V, Scapin I, Marzachi C (2007) Epidemiology of flavescence dorée in vineyards in northwestern Italy. Phytopathology 97:1422–1427. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-97-11-1422 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Moutous G, Hevin M (1986) Transmission expérimentale de la maladie de l’écorce liégeuse de la vigne, “corky-bark”, par la cicadelle Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Homoptera Jassidae). Agronomie 6:387–392. doi: 10.1051/agro:19860409 Google Scholar
  163. Nakamura Y, Yukuhiro F, Matsumura M, Noda H (2012) Cytoplasmic incompatibility involving Cardinium and Wolbachia in the white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Appl Entomol Zool 47:273–283. doi: 10.1007/s13355-012-0120-z Google Scholar
  164. Namba S, Boscia D, Azzam O, Maixner M, Hu JS, Golino D, Gonsalves D (1991) Purification and properties of closterovirus-like particles associated with grapevine corky bark disease. Phytopathology 81:964–970. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-81-964 Google Scholar
  165. OFAG (2013) Index des produits phytosanitaires. Office fédéral de l’agriculture. Accessed 04 April 2013
  166. Oliver KM, Degnan PH, Burke GR, Moran NA (2010) Facultative symbionts in aphids and the horizontal transfer of ecologically important traits. Ann Rev Entomol 55:247–266. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085305 Google Scholar
  167. Olivier CY, Lowery DT, Stobbs LW, Vincent C, Saguez J, Galka B, Bittner LA, Whybourne KJ (2008) Phytoplasma diseases in Canadian vineyards. Paper presented at the 1st International ENDURE Conference, La Grande Motte, France, 12–15 OctoberGoogle Scholar
  168. Orosz S, Zsolnai B (2010) Survey of the presence of Scaphoideus titanus Ball in Hungary. Acta Phytopathol Entomol Hung 45:115–119. doi: 10.1556/APhyt.45.2010.1.9 Google Scholar
  169. Osborn H, Knull DJ (1946) Check list oh Ohio leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Ohio J Sci 46:329–336Google Scholar
  170. Osler R, Fortusini A, Belli G (1975) Presenza di Scaphoideus littoralis in vigneti dell’Oltrepò pavese affetti da una malattia tipo "Flavescence dorée". Inf Fitopatol 25:13–15Google Scholar
  171. Papura D, van Helden M, Giresse X, Salar P, Danet JL, Foissac X, Malembic-Maher S (2007) Genetic structure of Scaphoideus titanus populations and genetic diversity of the epidemic strains of "flavescence dorée" phytoplasma: the situation in France. Bull Insectol 60:333–334Google Scholar
  172. Papura D, Delmotte F, Giresse X, Salar P, Danet JL, van Helden M, Foissac X, Malembic-Maher S (2009) Comparing the spatial genetic structures of the Flavescence doree phytoplasma and its leafhopper vector Scaphoideus titanus. Infect Genet Evol 9:867–876. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2009.05.009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Papura D, Burban C, van Helden M, Giresse X, Nusillard B, Guillemaud T, Kerdelhué C (2012) Microsatellite and mitochondrial data provide evidence for a single major introduction for the Neartic leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus in Europe. PLoS ONE 7:e36882. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036882 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Pavan F, Villani A, Fornasier F, Girolami V (1997) Ruolo del vivaismo nella diffusione della flavescenza dorata. Inf Agrar 53:69–71Google Scholar
  175. Pavan F, Mori N, Bressan S, Mutton P (2012) Control strategies for grapevine phytoplasma diseases: factors influencing the profitability of replacing symptomatic plants. Phytopathol Mediterr 51:11–22Google Scholar
  176. Posenato G, Mori N, Bressan A, Girolami V, Sancassani GP (2001) Scaphoideus titanus, vettore della flavescenza dorata: conoscerlo per combatterlo. Inf Agrar 57:91–93Google Scholar
  177. Pueyo C, Carrara J, Parent E (2008) Flavescence dorée en Languedoc-Roussillon: bilan de 10 années de lutte (synthèse des données 1997–2007). Direction Régionale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt Languedoc-Roussillon, Service Régional de la Protection des Végétaux, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  178. Purcell AH (1982) Insect vector relationships with procaryotic plant pathogens. Annu Rev Phytopathol 20:397–417. doi: 10.1146/ Google Scholar
  179. Purcell AH (1988) Increased survival of Dalbulus maidis, a specialist on maize, on non-host plants infected with mollicute plant pathogens. Entomol Exp Appl 46:187–196. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1988.tb01110.x Google Scholar
  180. Quaglino F, Zhao Y, Casati P, Bulgari D, Bianco PA, Wei W, Davis RE (2013) 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', a novel taxon associated with stolbur and bois noir related diseases of plants. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.044750-0 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Quartau JA, Guimarães JM, André G (2001) On the occurrence in Portugal of the nearctic Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera, Cicadellidae), the natural vector of the grapevine “flavescence dorée” (FD). IOBC/WPRS Bull 24:273–276Google Scholar
  182. Rahola J, Reyes J, Giralt L, Torres E, Barrios G (1997) La flavescencia dorada en los vinedos del Alt Emporda (Girona). Bol Sanid Veg Plagas 23:403–416Google Scholar
  183. Ribaut H (1952) Homoptères Auchenorhynques II (Jassidae), vol 57. Faune de France. Fédération Française des Sciences Naturelles, ParisGoogle Scholar
  184. Riehle MA, Jacobs-Lorena M (2005) Using bacteria to express and display anti-parasite molecules in mosquitoes: current and future strategies. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:699–707. doi: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2005.02.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Rigamonti IE, Jermini M, Fuog D, Baumgartner J (2011) Towards an improved understanding of the dynamics of vineyard-infesting Scaphoideus titanus leafhopper populations for better timing of management activities. Pest Manag Sci 67:1222–1229. doi: 10.1002/ps.2171 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Rigamonti I, Trivellone V, Brambilla C, Jermini M, Baumgartner J (2013a) Research and management oriented sampling plans for vine inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus grape leafhopper nymphs. IOBC/WPRS Bull 85:29–35Google Scholar
  187. Rigamonti I, Trivellone V, Jermini M, Baumgartner J (2013b) Multiannual infestation patterns of grapevine canopy inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus Ball leafhoppers. IOBC/WPRS Bull 85:43–48Google Scholar
  188. Sacchi L, Genchi M, Clementi E, Bighardi E, Avanzati AM, Pajoro M, Negri I, Marzorati M, Gonella E, Alma A, Daffonchio D, Bandi C (2008) Multiple symbiosis in the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): details of transovarial transmission of Cardinium sp and yeast-like endosymbionts. Tissue Cell 40:231–242. doi: 10.1016/j.tice.2007.12.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Santinelli C, Santoni M, Braccini P, Botti S, Bertaccini A (2003) Trovato in Umbria Scaphoideus titanus, vettore della flavescenza dorata. Inf Agrar 59:81–82Google Scholar
  190. Santini L, Lucchi A (1998) Presenza in Toscana del cicadellide Scaphoideus titanus. Inf Agrar 54:73–74Google Scholar
  191. Schaerer S, Johnston H, Gugerli P, Linder C, Shaub L, Colombi L (2007) "Flavescence dorée" in Switzerland: spread of the disease in canton of Ticino and of its insect vector, now also in cantons of Vaud and Geneva. Bull Insectol 60:375–376Google Scholar
  192. Schraiber JG, Kaczmarczyk AN, Kwok R, Park M, Silverstein R, Rutaganira FU, Aggarwal T, Schwemmer MA, Hom CL, Grosberg RK, Schreiber SJ (2012) Constraints on the use of lifespan-shortening Wolbachia to control dengue fever. J Theor Biol 297:26–32. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.12.006 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Schvester D (1962) Sur les causes de la propagation en Armagnac et en Chalosse de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Rev Zool Agr 10–12:132–135Google Scholar
  194. Schvester D (1969) Traitements insecticides et guérison des vignes atteintes de Flavescence dorée. Ann Zool Ecol Anim 1:467–494Google Scholar
  195. Schvester D, Carle P, Moutous G (1961) Sur la transmission de la Flavescence dorée des vignes par une cicadelle. C R Acad Agric Fr 47:1021–1024Google Scholar
  196. Schvester D, Moutous G, Bonfils J, Carle P (1962a) Étude biologique des cicadelles de la vigne dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. Ann Epiphyt 13:205–237Google Scholar
  197. Schvester D, Moutous G, Carle P (1962b) Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. (Homopt. Jassidae) cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Rev Zool Agr Appl 10–12:118–131Google Scholar
  198. Schvester D, Carle A, Moutous G (1969) Nouvelles données sur la transmission de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne par Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. Ann Zool Ecol Anim 1:445–465Google Scholar
  199. Seljak G (1987) Scaphoideus titanus Ball (= Sc. littoralis Ball), novi stetnik vinove loze u Jugoslaviji. Zast Bilja 38:349–357Google Scholar
  200. Seljak G (2008) Distribution of Scaphoideus titanus in Slovenia: its new significance after the first occurrence of grapevine "flavescence doree". Bull Insectol 61:201–202Google Scholar
  201. Sharon R, Soroker V, Wesley SD, Zahavi T, Harari A, Weintraub PG (2005) Vitex agnus-castus is a preferred host plant for Hyalesthes obsoletus. J Chem Ecol 31:1051–1063. doi: 10.1007/s10886-005-4247-z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Sinclair WA, Townsend AM, Griffiths HM, Whitlow TH (2000) Responses of six Eurasian Ulmus cultivars to a North American elm yellows phytoplasma. Plant Dis 84:1266–1270. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.12.1266 Google Scholar
  203. Sisterson MS (2009) Transmission of insect-vectored pathogens: effects of vector fitness as a function of infectivity status. Environ Entomol 38:345–355. doi: 10.1603/022.038.0206 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Sivčev BV, Sivčev IL, Vasic ZZR (2010) Plant protection products in organic grapevine growing. J Agric Sci Belgrade 55:103–122. doi: 10.2298/jas1001103s Google Scholar
  205. Stacconi MVR, Romani R (2012) Antennal sensory structures in Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Microsc Res Tech 75:458–466. doi: 10.1002/jemt.21078 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Stadler B, Dixon AFG (2005) Ecology and evolution of aphid–ant interactions. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:345–372. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.091704.175531 Google Scholar
  207. Steffek R, Reisenzein H, Zeisner N (2007) Analysis of the pest risk from Grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasma to Austrian viticulture. EPPO Bull 37:191–203. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2338.2007.01102.x Google Scholar
  208. Stoeckli S, Hirschi M, Spirig C, Calanca P, Rotach MW, Samietz J (2012) Impact of climate change on voltinism and prospective diapause induction of a global pest insect—Cydia pomonella (L.). PLoS ONE 7:e35723PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Strauss E (2009) Phytoplasma research begins to bloom. Science 325:388–390. doi: 10.1126/science.325_388 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Sugio A, Kingdom HN, MacLean AM, Grieve VM, Hogenhout SA (2011) Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:E1254–E1263. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1105664108 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Taylor LR (1974) Insect migration, flight periodicity and the boundary layer. J Anim Ecol 43:225–238Google Scholar
  212. Thiéry D, Xuéreb A, Villemant C, Sentenac G, Delbac L, Kuntzman P (2001) The parasites of grape tortricids: noticed on several species present in 3 French vine regions. IOBC/WPRS Bull 24:135–141Google Scholar
  213. Trespaille-Barrau JM, Grosman J (2011) Groupe de travail national flavescence dorée. Communications et relevé de décisions. Lisle sur TarnGoogle Scholar
  214. Trivellone V, Jermini M, Linder C, Cara C, Delabays N, Baumgartner J (2013) Role de la flore du vignoble sur la distribution de Scaphoideus titanus. Rev Suisse Vitic Arboric Hortic 45:222–228Google Scholar
  215. Trombulak SC, Frissell CA (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14:18–30. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.99084.x Google Scholar
  216. Tubajika KM, Civerolo EL, Puterka GJ, Hashim JM, Luvisi DA (2007) The effects of kaolin, harpin, and imidacloprid on development of Pierce’s disease in grape. Crop Prot 26:92–99. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2006.04.006 Google Scholar
  217. Välimäki P, Kivelä SM, JääskeläInen L, Kaitala A, Kaitala V, Oksanen J (2008) Divergent timing of egg-laying may maintain life history polymorphism in potentially multivoltine insects in seasonal environments. J Evol Biol 21:1711–1723. doi: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01597.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Välimäki P, Kivelä SM, Mäenpää MI, Tammaru T (2013) Latitudinal clines in alternative life histories in a geometrid moth. J Evol Biol 26:118–129. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12033 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. van Helden M, Fulchin E, Verpy A, Gil F, Garcia C (2011) Adult monitoring improves control of the flavescence doree leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus in Gironde (France) while using less pesticide! IOBC/WPRS Bull 67:9–16Google Scholar
  220. Vidano C (1964) Scoperta in Italia dello Scaphoideus littoralis Ball cicalina americana collegata alla “Flavescence dorée” della Vite. Ital Agric 101:1031–1049Google Scholar
  221. Vidano C (1966) Scoperta della ecologia ampelofila del Cicadellide Scaphoideus littoralis Ball nella regione neartica originaria. Ann Fac Sci Agrar Univ Stud Torino 3:297–302Google Scholar
  222. Vidano C, Arzone A, Alma A, Arnò C (1988) Flavescenza dorata della vite e Auchenorrinchi probabili vettori del suo agente patogeno in Piemonte. Ann Fac Sci Agrar Univ Stud Torino 15:29–37Google Scholar
  223. Viggiani G (2002) Il vettore della flavescenza trovato in Basilicata. Inf Agrar 58:59Google Scholar
  224. Weintraub PG, Beanland L (2006) Insect vectors of phytoplasmas. Ann Rev Entomol 51:91–111. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.51.110104.151039 Google Scholar
  225. Wu D, Daugherty SC, Van Aken SE, Pai GH, Watkins KL, Khouri H, Tallon LJ, Zaborsky JM, Dunbar HE, Tran PL, Moran NA, Eisen JA (2006) Metabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterial symbiosis of sharpshooters. PLoS Biol 4:1079–1092. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040188 Google Scholar
  226. Xuéreb A, Thiery D (2006) Does natural larval parasitism of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) vary between years, generation, density of the host and vine cultivar? Bull Entomol Res 96:105–110. doi: 10.1079/ber2005393 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Zahavi T, Peles S, Harari AR, Soroker V, Sharon R (2007) Push and pull strategy to reduce Hyalesthes obsoletus population in vineyards by Vitex agnus castus as trap plant. Bull Insectol 60:297–298Google Scholar

Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA, ISVV, UMR 1065 Santé et Agroécologie du VignobleVillenave d’OrnonFrance
  2. 2.Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, UMR 1065 Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble, Bordeaux Sciences AgroVillenave d’OrnonFrance

Personalised recommendations