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Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 381–403 | Cite as

Biology and ecology of the Flavescence dorée vector Scaphoideus titanus: a review

  • Julien Chuche
  • Denis Thiéry
Review Article

Abstract

Flavescence dorée is a serious disease for European vine growers. Indeed, Flavescence dorée causes yield losses and lower grape quality. As a consequence, Flavescence dorée is costly and needs advanced control strategies. For instance, in 2005, 34 million Euro was given to Italian vine growers to compensate losses due to the disease. The infection by Flavescence dorée results from the association of a phytoplasma and the leafhopper vector, Scaphoideus titanus. Despite mandatory controls using insecticides, Flavescence dorée is still spreading in Europe. Here, we review the biology and ecology of S. titanus to suggest improved management techniques. The main findings are as follows. (1) The long-distance spread of S. titanus is mainly due to human activities, and all European vineyards are susceptible to be colonized. (2) S. titanus is an efficient vector because it can reach a high population level and it is specific to Vitis spp. (3) Current control and prophylaxis are insufficiently effective. (4) Variation in vector populations and vector capacities lead to differential risks of plant infection. Factors driving such population variations could be modeled to improve S. titanus control. (5) Feeding behavior is a key factor in the phytoplasma–vector relationship. (6) The infection risk is mainly limited by vector control. To decrease pesticide use, a cross survey of the vector population and of the infected stocks triggers mandatory treatments. (7) Alternative sustainable methods or strategies are required to reduce insecticide use and increase control efficiency. In the short term, new models could support the establishment of more sustainable pest management operations. In the long term, innovative techniques involving symbionts, mating disruption and a push–pull strategy could improve S. titanus and Flavescence dorée control with less environmental impact.

Keywords

Scaphoideus titanus Grapevine Insect Vector Phytoplasma Leafhoppers 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr Sylvie Malembic-Maher for comments on the manuscript, and Dr Mauro Jermini, Jacques Grosman, and Jean-Michel Trespaillé-Barrau for allowing us to quote personal unpublished observations. The surface treated by mating disruption in Italy was provided by Pr A. Lucchi. We are very grateful to all the European researchers who shared their knowledge with us and to Pascal Salar, UMR Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, for providing the pictures of S. titanus nymphs and adults. We also appreciate the constructive efforts of anonymous reviewers to improve our original manuscript. This work is part of the Labex COTE project and has been supported by grants from the Conseil Interprofessionnel des Vins de Bordeaux, the Aquitaine region and INRA Santé des Plantes et Environnement department.

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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INRA, ISVV, UMR 1065 Santé et Agroécologie du VignobleVillenave d’OrnonFrance
  2. 2.Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, UMR 1065 Santé et Agroécologie du Vignoble, Bordeaux Sciences AgroVillenave d’OrnonFrance

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