Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 155–173 | Cite as

Cadmium minimization in rice. A review

  • Abin Sebastian
  • Majeti Narasimha Vara PrasadEmail author
Review Article


Cadmium (Cd) contamination of rice is found in areas irrigated by wastewater from mines. Cd contamination of rice fields can also result from the application of Cd-rich phosphate fertilizers. As a consequence, millions of tons of rice are discarded. In Asia, irrigated paddy-based cropping systems provide rice grains as food for about 2 billion people. A daily intake of 20–40 μg Cd from rice is reported in regions where rice is used as a food. Daily rice Cd intake leads to diseases such as bone mineralization. Hence, Cd minimization in rice is needed. This article reviews sustainable agriculture and molecular techniques that prevents Cd uptake in rice. Cadmium minimization can be done either by field remediation or change in plant functions. Organic farming decreases Cd uptake and remediates crop fields. Cd hyperaccumulator plants and Cd immobilizing microbes can be used for field remediation. Cd amount in rice can be controlled by gene families that code for putative transition metal transporters or metal chaperones and quantitative trait loci (QTL). Generation of Cd excluder rice is possible by transgenics.


Biogeochemistry Ecophysiology Phytotechniques Cadmium transporters Metal chelators Cadmium responsive genes Cadmium excluder rice 



Abin Sebastian gratefully acknowledges the award of Senior Research Fellowship by CSIR-UGC NET, New Delhi. M.N.V. Prasad is recipient of Pitamber Pant National Environment Fellowship, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.


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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abin Sebastian
    • 1
  • Majeti Narasimha Vara Prasad
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia

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