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Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 65–91 | Cite as

Legumes in the reclamation of marginal soils, from cultivar and inoculant selection to transgenic approaches

  • Teodoro Coba de la Peña
  • José J. PueyoEmail author
Review Paper

Abstract

Mineral nitrogen deficiency is a frequent characteristic of arid and semi-arid soils. Biological nitrogen fixation by legumes is a sustainable and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical fertilization. Therefore, legumes have a high potential for the reclamation of marginal soils. Such issue is becoming more urgent due to the ever-rising requirement for food and feed, and the increasing extension of salinized and degraded lands, both as a consequence of global change and irrigation practices. This manuscript reviews current research on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the response and tolerance to environmental stresses of the Rhizobium–legume symbiosis. We report in particular recent advances on the isolation, characterization, and selection of tolerant rhizobial strains and legume varieties, both by traditional methods and through biotechnological approaches. The major points are the following. (1) Understanding mechanisms involved in stress tolerance is advancing fast, thus providing a solid basis for the selection and engineering of rhizobia and legumes with enhanced tolerance to environmental constraints. (2) The considerable efforts to select locally adapted legume varieties and rhizobial inocula that can fix nitrogen under conditions of drought or salinity are generating competitive crop yields in affected soils. (3) Biotechnological approaches are used to obtain improved legumes and rhizobia with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses, paying particular attention to the sensitive nitrogen-fixing activity. Those biotechnologies are yielding transgenic crops and inocula with unquestionable potential. In conclusion, the role of legumes in sustainable agriculture, and particularly, their use in the reclamation of marginal lands, certainly has a very promising future.

Keywords

Legume Rhizobium Soil Nitrogen fixation Nodule Stress Salinity Drought 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, the Comunidad de Madrid, the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha and the Fundación Ramón Areces.

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© INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, CSICMadridSpain

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