Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 483–490 | Cite as

Management of herbicide-resistant Papaver rhoeas in dry land cereal fields

  • Joel TorraEmail author
  • Aritz Royo Esnal
  • Jordi Recasens Guinjuan
Original Paper


Papaver rhoeas is the most common dicotyledonous weed in winter cereals in southern Europe. It is an increasing problem due to the appearance of herbicide resistant biotypes to synthetic auxines and/or to sulfonylureas. The development of management strategies that combine both cultural and chemical tactics is required. We evaluated the combination of different strategies for the management of a herbicide resistant P. rhoeas population to 2,4-D with high infestation levels during four consecutive seasons, from 2002–2003 to 2005–1006, in a rain-fed winter cereal field in North-Eastern Spain. The experiment included the traditional wheat monocrop and five management systems with different combinations of chemical and physical fallows, delayed seeding with barley, chemical and mechanical control, chisel cultivation and mouldboard ploughing. Weed densities along the season and yield at harvest were measured for each treatment. Our results show that in all systems reductions from 90% to 100% of the weed densities were reached. No yield penalties were detected for the non-chemical systems with harrowing along seasons. Moreover, the last 2005/06 season yields, of 2,183–2,356 kg/ha, were higher than the system with traditional wheat monocrop (1,820 kg/ha). The system with delayed seeding every two seasons had the highest yield, of 4,093 kg/ha, the second season, and no differences with other management systems monitored were found other seasons. Delayed seeding and the different fallows studied showed their effectiveness in reducing weed densities, but always combined with other control methods like chemical control or cultivation. This study shows that effective control of herbicide resistant P. rhoeas can be achieved with adequate management programmes that combine two or more different strategies, with less dependence on herbicides. These findings define cultural management strategies to reduce herbicide resistant P. rhoeas infestations and to contribute to integrated weed management strategies combining these with other tools.


Fallow Delayed seeding Chemical fallow Physical fallow Harrowing Mouldboard ploughing 


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Copyright information

© INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Torra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aritz Royo Esnal
    • 1
  • Jordi Recasens Guinjuan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Hortofructicultura, Botànica i JardineriaFundació Centre UdL-IRTA, Universitat de LleidaLleidaSpain

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