Temporal variation in homing ability of the neotropical stingless bee Scaptotrigona aff. postica (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)
Body size is a known predictor of foraging distance in stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini). However, effects of seasonality on foraging distances, particularly in tropical regions, are poorly understood. Here, we use translocation (‘homing’) experiments, the release of marked individuals at various distances from the nest, to investigate how homing abilities of the Neotropical stingless bee, Scaptotrigona aff. postica differ across the transition between wet and dry seasons (February–August) in a heterogenous tropical landscape in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. We also determined nectar sugar concentrations of unmanipulated returning foragers to assess temporal changes in collected resource quality. Maximum and typical homing distances (i.e. distances where 90% and 50% of released bees are lost) were estimated to be 860 and 392 m, respectively, confirming that while some individuals travel long distances, most workers must remain close to nests during foraging trips. Homing distances and collected nectar sugar concentrations showed inverse temporal patterns, as homing range declined in later months (May to August), whereas nectar sugar concentrations increased over the same period. Thus, shorter homing distances in later ‘dry season’ months probably reflected an increased availability of floral resources compared with earlier months. Together, our findings highlight the limited spatial extent of foraging activities in S. aff. postica workers, and that bee homing distances vary with environmental conditions. These results provide useful information for both stingless bee colony management and conservation in humid tropical regions.
Keywordsforaging range stingless bees Amazon rainforest translocation experiment tropical pollinators
The authors would like to thank Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, especially Dr. Daniel Santiago Pereira for logistical support during the experiments, M.Sc. Kamila Leão Leão for help with colony maintenance and advice on sampling methods, Gabriel Érik Santiago de Melo and M.Sc. Ana Carolina Martins Queiroz for their help during the experiments, and Dr. Luísa Gigante Carvalheiro for critical comments on a previous draft of this manuscript.
AJC and FALC devised the experiment; AJC, RLCG, and KCS performed experiments; AJC analysed data and wrote initial draft; all authors contributed to subsequent drafts and approved the final manuscript.
AJC was supported by postdoctoral grants from CAPES/Embrapa (15/2014) and CNPq (300037/2018-0) in completing this research. RLCG was supported by a Ph.D grant from CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior)-Brazil-Finance Code 001. CNPq/MCTIC/IBAMA/Associação ABELHA No 32/2017 (400585/2018-9) provided financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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