Effects of Chlorella sp. on biological characteristics of the honey bee Apis mellifera
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We tested the effect of Chlorella sorokiniana, a green, unicellular, freshwater alga, provided as a food supplement on several biological characteristics of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Chlorella was applied as (1) a moisturized powder, (2) a sugar-water solution, or (3) mixed with honey-sugar candy. All three applications were well accepted by the bees. We observed a positive effect of Chlorella on colony development, and also on basic aspects of metabolism, such as increased fat deposition and vitellogenin transcript levels, and a decrease in TOR and InR2 transcript levels. The effect of Chlorella on other characteristics was lower (protein levels) or even null (total fat body mass, level of adipokinetic hormone). Application of Chlorella modulated the hypopharyngeal gland size, and the activity of basic digestive enzymes in the bee midgut. Our observations suggest that the nutritional composition of Chlorella might be an appropriate dietary supplement for honey bees.
KeywordsA. mellifera chlorella nutrients longevity AKH
The authors thank Mrs. H. Štěrbová for her technical assistance. The English grammar and stylistics were checked by the Editage Author Services.
RČF, DK, and TJ conceived this research and designed experiments; TJ participated in the design and interpretation of the data; TJ, JK, MS, AT, VK, and JD performed experiments and analysis; RČF and DK wrote the paper and participated in the revisions of it. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This study was supported by grant no. LTAUSA17116 Inter Action from Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic, by project Strategy AV21, Diversity of Life and Health of Ecosystems.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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