The architecture of the pollen hoarding syndrome in honey bees: implications for understanding social evolution, behavioral syndromes, and selective breeding
- 374 Downloads
Social evolution has influenced every aspect of contemporary honey bee biology, but the details are difficult to reconstruct. The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution proposes that central regulators of the gonotropic cycle of solitary insects have been co-opted to coordinate social complexity in honey bees, such as the division of labor among workers. The predicted trait associations between reproductive physiology and social behavior have been identified in the context of the pollen hoarding syndrome, a larger suite of interrelated traits. The genetic architecture of this syndrome is characterized by a partially overlapping genetic architecture with several consistent, pleiotropic quantitative trait loci (QTL). Despite these central QTL and an integrated hormonal regulation, separate aspects of the pollen hoarding syndrome may evolve independently due to peripheral QTL and additionally segregating genetic variance. The characterization of the pollen hoarding syndrome has also demonstrated that this syndrome involves many non-behavioral traits, which may be the case for numerous “behavioral” syndromes. Furthermore, the genetic architecture of the pollen hoarding syndrome has implications for breeding programs for improving honey health and other desirable traits: if these traits are comparable to the pollen hoarding syndrome, consistent pleiotropic QTL will enable marker-assisted selection, while sufficient additional genetic variation may permit the dissociation of trade-offs for efficient multiple trait selection.
KeywordsApis mellifera pleiotropy behavioral syndrome honey bee health social behavior correlated evolution artificial selection ovary
I thank David Tarpy and Stan Schneider for the invitation to write this review. I am greatly indebted to Robert Page for introducing me to many fascinating problems that relate to pollen hoarding behavior in honey bees. I would also like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Institutes of Health grant (R15GM102753), the United States Department of Agriculture (2010-65104-20533), and the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign.
- Bailey, L., Ball, B.V. (1991) Honey Bee Pathology. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Camazine, S. (1986) Differential reproduction of the mite, Varroa jacobsoni (Mesostigmata, Varroidae), on Africanized and European honey bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79(5), 801–803Google Scholar
- Graham, A.M., Munday, M.D., Kaftanoglu, O., Page, R.E., Amdam, G.V., Rueppell, O. (2011) Support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution and major QTL for ovary traits of Africanized worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). BMC Evol. Biol. 11, 95PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hellmich, R.L., Kulincevic, J.M., Rothenbuhler, W.C. (1985) Selection for high and low pollen-hoarding honey bees. J. Hered. 76(3), 155–158Google Scholar
- Jandt, J.M., Bengston, S. Pinter-Wollman, N. Pruitt, J.N., Raine, N.E., Dornhaus, A. Sih A. (2013) Behavioural syndromes and social insects: personality at multiple levels. Biol. Rev. Online. In press.Google Scholar
- Laidlaw, H.H., Page, R.E. (1997) Queen rearing and bee breeding. Wicwas Press, CheshireGoogle Scholar
- O'Hagan, S.J., Knowles, D.B., Kell (2012) Exploiting genomic knowledge in optimising molecular breeding programmes: algorithms from evolutionary computing. PLoS One 7(11). In press.Google Scholar
- Schmid-Hempel, P. (1998) Parasites in social insects. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- Spivak, M., Gilliam, M. (1998) Hygienic behaviour of honey bees and its application for control of brood diseases and Varroa Part I. Hygienic behaviour and resistance to American foulbrood. Bee World 79(3), 124–134. 169–186Google Scholar
- Spivak, M., Reuter, G.S., Lee, K., Ranum, B. (2009) The future of the MN hygienic stock of bees is in good hands! Am. Bee J. 149(10), 965–967Google Scholar
- Tsuruda, J.M., Harris, J.W., Bourgeois, L., Danka, R.G., Hunt, G.J. (2012) High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees. PLoS One 7(11)Google Scholar