Nuclear mitochondrial DNA: an Achilles’ heel of molecular systematics, phylogenetics, and phylogeographic studies of stingless bees
- 438 Downloads
Mitochondrial-like DNA (numt) has been found in a variety of insect species. In this work, our objective was to create a phylogeographic hypothesis of Melipona capixaba based on the complete COI sequence. However, several inconsistencies were found, such as 1–2-bp-long indels and a stop codon within the putative amino acid sequences. This led us to infer that M. capixaba has numts. A phylogenetic analysis which included COI sequences of several species of Melipona Illiger, 1806 revealed that numts are also common among other species of the genus. Based on our results, we have proposed a checklist to help to identify the most conspicuous numts; however, it does not ensure that all numts will be identified, since not all numts present explicit signals. Therefore, we recommend taking the maximum care in phylogeographic and phylogenetic analysis within Melipona as well as Hymenoptera, since several evidences of numts were found within this order.
Keywordsnumts cytochrome c oxidase subunit I Melipona
This research was part of the M.Sc. dissertation of MPC who was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG, Process numbers: CBB-1331/06) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes). We are grateful to Dr. Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos for his assistance and encouragement, to the M. Sc. Helder Resende and Íris Stanciola for collecting samples, and to the bee keepers that kindly provided the specimens analyzed.
- Batalha-Filho, B., Waldschmidt, A.N., Campos, L.A.O., Tavares, M.G., Fernandes-Salomão, T.M. (2010) Phylogeography and historical demography of the neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae): incongruence between morphology and mitochondrial DNA. Apidologie 41, 534–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Beckenbach, A.T. (2009) Numts and mitochondrial pseudogenes. Myrmecol. News 12, 217–218Google Scholar
- Behura, S.K., Lobo, N.F., Haas, B., deBruyn, B., Lovin, D.D., Shumway, M.F., Puiu, D., Romero-Severson, J., Nene, V., Severson, D.W. (2011) Complete sequences of mitochondria genomes of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA fragments inserted in the nuclear genomes. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41, 770–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Camargo J.M.F., Pedro, S.R.M. (2008) Meliponini Lepeletier, 1836. In Moure, J.S., Urban, D. and Melo, G.A.R. (Orgs). Catalogue of Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea) in the Neotropical Region. Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia, Curitiba, pp. 272–578 (online version. Available at http://www.moure.cria.org.br/catalogue).
- Nylander, J.A.A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Uppsala University: Evolutionary Biology Center.Google Scholar
- Resende, H.C., Yotoko, K.S.C., Delabie, J.H.C., Costa, M.A., Campiolo, S., Tavares, M.G., Campos, L.A.O., Fernandes-Salomão, T.M. (2010) Pliocene and Pleistocene events shaping the genetic diversity within the central corridor of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 101, 949–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar