Impact of sensory interactions among volatile compounds of juice of Red Delicious apples

  • Deshou Mao
  • Hong Liu
  • Zhengfeng Li
  • Yunwei Niu
  • Zuobing Xiao
  • Fengmei Zhang
  • Jiancai ZhuEmail author
Research Report


We obtained volatile aroma compounds from the juices extracted from three different Red Delicious apple (Malus domestica) varieties, which included esters, alcohols, and aldehydes. Among these compounds, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, hexanal, and butyl 2-methylbutanoate showed high odour active values in the juices. Four compounds (ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl hexanoate) were selected to investigate possible interactions occurring in the apple juices. The results demonstrated that the additions of these four aroma volatile compounds could decrease the threshold and intensity of the sensory notes of the solutions compared to those without the addition of these compounds. Lastly, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate was added to the solutions to investigate interactions with σ–τ function. Here, σ represents the ratio of the aroma intensity of the mixed solution to the sum of aroma intensities of all compounds in the solution before blending. The τ represents the aroma of the mixture ratio between the mixture and the sum of aroma compounds before mixing. The results clearly indicated that additive or synergistic effects occurred among these volatiles at sub-threshold concentrations.


Red Delicious apple juice Aroma Synergistic effect Sensory 



The investigation was funded by Key Scientific Research Project of China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co., Ltd. [2018xy03, 2018JC04].

Author contributions

ZJC provided substantial contributions to the conception and design of the work. MDS and Hong liu aquired and analysed the data for Red Delicious apple; LZF designed and interpreted the descriptive testing methods for the experiment; NYW and ZFM designed the method of mutual interaction with compounds in Red Delicious apple; XZB checked the data and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of human rights and the welfare of animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deshou Mao
    • 1
  • Hong Liu
    • 1
  • Zhengfeng Li
    • 1
  • Yunwei Niu
    • 2
  • Zuobing Xiao
    • 2
  • Fengmei Zhang
    • 1
  • Jiancai Zhu
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Technology CenterChina Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co., LtdKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Perfume and Aroma TechnologyShanghai Institute of TechnologyShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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