Discovery of PTE-1, Tourist-like miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE), and its activation in transgenic Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis plants
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Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are class II, non-autonomous DNA transposons that occupy a large portion of the genome, most in an inactive state. Because transposition of MITEs can have a broad impact on the structure and function of the genome, it is important to identify activated MITEs and analyze their propensity for transposition. However, to date the activity of only a few MITEs has been analyzed. In this study, MITE activation during the transformation processes in Chinese cabbage was analyzed by using next-generation sequencing. Using genome wide analysis, we found PTE-1 was activated during the transformation process. The active transposition of PTE-1 was analyzed by PCR amplification. We determined the sequence of PTE-1 by cloning the PCR products. Based on its target site duplications sequence and terminal inverted repeats structure, we inferred that the element belongs to the Tourist family. The characteristics of PTE-1, including structure and copy number, were identified by bioinformatics approaches. The results suggest that PTE-1 activation could be induced by the transformation process and reveal the first detection of activated MITE in tissue culture derived from Brassica rapa plants.
KeywordsActivation Chinese cabbage Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements Next-generation sequencing Tourist family
This work was carried out with the support of “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ01365201)” Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.
SA Kim performed the majority of the experiments and data analysis. YJ Jeon contributed to the activation experiment and data analysis. JS Park contributed to the development of the transgenic lines. YD Park designed the experiments and analyzed the data. SA Kim and YD Park wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to and corrected the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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