Application of calcium–boron improve fruit quality, cell characteristics, and effective softening enzyme activity after harvest in mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.)
Increasing demand for high quality mangoes has increased the need for enhanced fruit quality and longer shelf life. The concentrations of calcium (Ca) and boron (B) in fruit can affect its quality and shelf life and physiochemical composition. However, these effects have not been investigated in postharvest mango. The effects of Ca and B concentration on mango fruit quality and shelf life were investigated by spraying a 40% Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and 0.3% H3BO3 solution at 1, 2, 3 and 4 mL L−1 concentration on mango fruits for 60 and 90 days after anthesis compared with water control treatment. Mango fruits were subsequently harvested 110 days after anthesis and stored at 15 °C. Chemical and physical properties were then observed every three days. When fruit were sprayed with a 1 mL L−1 Ca–B solution, the size of the mango fruit and cells in the exocarp and the mesocarp increased, which was increased concentrations of Ca and B in the fruit. In addition, we found that pre-harvest application of Ca and B by spraying improved the tissue structure of the segment membrane, as well as increased fruit firmness, which was consistently delayed as much as nine to 21 days after harvest. Moreover, fruit that had been sprayed with a 1 mL L−1 Ca and B solution had an extended storage life at 15 °C of 24 days. Vitamin C concentration and SS/TA were higher at this treatment concentration compared to the other treatments. Furthermore, Hunter L, a, and b values of the peel were lower than those from fruit in other treatments groups. Additionally, the activities of pectin methylesterase and polygalacturonase in the treated pulp were reduced.
KeywordsCell structure Calcium–boron Firmness Pectin methylesterase Polygalacturonase Storage life
We extend our thanks to The Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the Royal Golden Jubilee (RGJ) Ph.D. Program (Grant No. PHD/0117/2553) for financial support, the Center of Excellence in Postharvest Technology, Naresuan University and the Postharvest Technology Innovation Center, Commission of Higher Education for the use of scientific instruments. Thanks to Prof. Ian Warrington for his assistance in editing and proofing this paper.
- Chuni SH, Awang Y, Mohamed MTM (2010) Cell wall enzymes activities and quality of calcium treated fresh-cut red flesh dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus). Int J Agric Biol 12:713–718Google Scholar
- Gross KC (1982) A rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for assaying polygalacturonase using 2-cyanoacetamide. HortScience 17:933–934Google Scholar
- Hafez M, Haggag HE (2007) Quality improvement and storability of apple cv. Anna by pre-harvest application of boric acid and calcium chloride. Res J Agric Biol Sci 3:176–183Google Scholar
- Lester GE, Grusak MA (2004) Field application of chelated calcium postharvest effects on cantaloupe and honeydew fruit quality. Hortic Technol 14:29–38Google Scholar
- Manganaris GA, Vasilakakis M, Mignani I, Diamantidis G, Tzavella-Klonari K (2005) The effect of preharvest calcium sprays on quality attributes, physicochemical aspects of cell wall components and susceptibility to brown rot of peach fruits (Prunus persica L. cv. Andross). Sci Hortic 107:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Minarin S, Chaiprasart P (2010) Study on effect of calcium and boron on internal breakdown symptoms and quality of mango fruit var. Nam Dokmai Sri Tong. Agric Sci J 41:51–54Google Scholar
- Phakdee N, Chaiprasart P (2010) Effect of Ca–B and gibberellic acid on the postharvest quality of pummelo fruits (Citrus maxima cv. Tha-kai.). Agric Sci J 41:114–117Google Scholar
- Yoshida Q, Nakagawa H, Ogura N, Sato T (1984) Effect of heat treatment on the development of polygalacturonase activity in tomato fruit during ripening. Plant Cell Physiol 25:505–509Google Scholar