Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 125–130 | Cite as

Effect of organic fertilizer application on growth characteristics and saponin content in Codonopsis lanceolata

  • Kyeong Gon Moon
  • In Seok Um
  • Seung Ho Jeon
  • Young Son Cho
  • Young-Guk Kim
  • Il Rae RhoEmail author
Research Report


Organic fertilizers were applied in four different forms: mixed organic matter, fermentation cake, bacterial culture, and rice husks, excluding conventional chemical fertilizer and non-treatment used as control. The results showed that soil pH was acidified after fermentation cake and chemical fertilizer treatment. Specifically, chemical fertilizer treatment showed higher phosphoric-acid content than other treatments, while total N content was higher in fermentation cake, mixed organic matter and chemical fertilizer. Growth of Codonopsis lanceolata showed superior tendency in the treatment of mixed organic matter and fermentation cake. Lancemacides, the major saponin of C. lanceolata, could be identified as foetidissimoside A, lancemaside A, lancemaside B, and lancemaside D. However, among them, quantitative analysis could not be conducted on foetidissimoside A due to its very low content, and lancemaside A was the most abundant saponin in the root from all the treatments. The content of lancemaisde A according to organic fertilizer application showed the highest value of 0.12 mg g−1 in the treatment of mixed organic matter, followed by the fermentation cake, bacterial culture, non-treatment, rice husks and chemical fertilizer, in that order. The content of lancemaside B and D was very low compared to lancemaside A, and there was no difference among treatments. Therefore, it was verified that the growth of C. lanceolata was superior in application of mixed organic matter and fermentation cake, and the major saponin, lancemaside A, was also increased.


Codonopsis lanceolata Cultivation Lancemaside Organic fertilizer Saponin 



This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evalution for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through Agri-Bio Industry Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA; 114062-3), and quoted a part of master’s thesis in Gyeongsang National University.


  1. Ahn SI, Kim SK, Yang BW, Lee ES, Kang CS, Hahm YT (2016) Analysis of ginsenosides and non-saponin components of red ginseng from landraces and new varieties. Korean J Hortic Sci Technol 34:790–798Google Scholar
  2. Chae HS, Jung SS (2013) A study on the quality characteristics of Yanggaeng with Codonopsis lanceolata skin extracts. Korean J Food Nutr 26:990–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Choi HK, Won EK, Jang YP, Choung SY (2013) Antiobesity effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in high-calorie high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013:9–17Google Scholar
  4. Gillman GP (1979) A proposed method for the measurement of exchange properties of highly weathered soils. Aust J Soil Res 17:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ichikawa M, Ohta S, Komoto N, Ushijima M, Kodera Y, Hayama M, Shirota O, Sekita S, Kuroyanagi M (2009) Simultaneous determination of seven saponins in the roots of Codonopsis lanceolata by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Nat Med 63:52–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Joh EH, Lee IA, Han SJ, Chae SJ, Kim DH (2009) Lancemaside A ameliorates colitis by inhibiting NF-κB activation in TNBS-induced colitis mice. Int J Colorectal Dis 25:545–551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Joh EH, Jeong JJ, Kim DH (2014) Inhibitory effect of echinocystic acid on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced dermatitis in mice. Arch Pham Res 37:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jung JH, Kim SW, Lamsal K, Kim YS, Park HJ, Lee YS (2011) Effect of chitosan coated fungicide against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and powdery mildew. J Agric Life Sci 23:14–22Google Scholar
  9. Jung IH, Jang SE, Joh EH, Chung J, Han MJ, Kim DH (2012) Lancemaside A isolated from Codonopsis lanceolata and its metabolite echinocystic acid ameliorate scopolamin induced memory and learning deficits in mice. Phytomedicine 20:84–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim WS, Park JS (2013) Selection and control effect of environmental friendly organic materials for controlling the ginseng alternaria blight. Korean J Med Crop Sci 21:388–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim CA, Ywang MH (2013) Quality characteristics of Codonopsis lanceolata tea manufacture. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nurt 42:753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim SK, Lee SC, Min GG, Lee SP, Choi BS (1998) Effects of organic matter applications on essential oil contents and composition in Anthriscus sylvestylis Hoffm. Korean J Med Crop Sci 6:16–20Google Scholar
  13. Kim JA, Moon HK, Choi YE (2014a) Triterpenoid saponin contents of the leaf, stem and root of Codonopsis lanceolata. Korean J Med Crop Sci 22:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim YG, An TJ, Yeo JH, Hur M, Park YS, Cha SW, Song BH, Lee KA (2014b) Effects of eco-friendly organic fertilizer on growth and yield of Angelica gigas Nakai. Korean J Med Crop Sci 22:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lee JC, Lee IH, Hahn WS (1984) Statistic model by soil physicochemical properties for prediction of ginseng root yield. Korean J Soil Sci Fertil 17:371–374Google Scholar
  16. Lee SJ, Lee SH, Shin HJ, Cho HJ, Kim BJ, Chung JB (2003) Comparison of the effects of Mg-sulfate and Mg-hydroxide on soil pH, EC and exchangeable cation distribution. Korean J Soil Sci Fertil 36:105–112Google Scholar
  17. Lee HJ, Parl GC, Lee SH, Bang KH, Park HW, Hyen DY, Kang SW, Cha SW, Chung IM (2012) Screening of antifungal Bacillus spp. against alternaria blight pathogen (Alternaria panax) and anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of ginseng. Korean J Med Crop Sci 20:339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (2015) Special crops production performance 2016. MAFRA Sejong Korea, pp 16–17Google Scholar
  19. Park NG, Ko SB, Ko MS (2002) Effect fermented pig slurry treated with probiotics on the productivity of sorghum × sundan grass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor L.). J Anim Environ Sci 8:35–42Google Scholar
  20. Park SJ, Park DS, Yoon WB, He X, Ahn JH (2012) Effects of aged Deodeok extract on serum lipid content in rats fed a high-fat diet. J East Asian Soc Diet Life 22:17–24Google Scholar
  21. Seo CS, Hwang DS, Lee JK, Ha HK, Chun JM, Um YR, Jang S, Shin HK (2009) Concentration of heavy metals, residual pesticides and sulfur dioxside of before/after a decoction. Korea J Herbol 24:111–119Google Scholar
  22. Shibata ST, Ando T, Tanaka O (1966) Chemical studies on oriental plant drugs and prospogenin of the ginseng saponin. Chem Pharm Bull 14:115–116Google Scholar
  23. Song CH, Seo YC, Choi WY, Lee CK, Kim DU, Jung JY, Jung HC, Park DS, Ma CJ et al (2012) Enhancement of antioxidative activity of Codonopsis lanceolata by stepwise steaming process. Korean J Med Crop Sci 20:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Uhm MJ, Noh JJ, Chon HG, Kwon SW, Song YJ (2012) Application effect of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on the watermelon growth and soil chemical properties in greenhouse. Korean J Environ Agric 31:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Westerman PW, King LD (1987) Swine manure and Lagoon effluent applied to a temperate forage mixture: rainfall runoff and soil chemical properties. J Environ Qual 16:106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyeong Gon Moon
    • 1
  • In Seok Um
    • 1
  • Seung Ho Jeon
    • 2
  • Young Son Cho
    • 2
  • Young-Guk Kim
    • 3
  • Il Rae Rho
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuKorea
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy and Medicinal Plant ResourcesGyeongnam National University of Science and TechnologyJinju-SiKorea
  3. 3.Department of Herbal Crop ResearchNational Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDAEumseongKorea
  4. 4.Institute of Agriculture and Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuKorea

Personalised recommendations