Transcriptomic changes in dormant buds of two grapevine cultivars following exposure to freezing temperature
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In this study, transcriptomes of buds from two grapevine (Vitis labruscana) cultivars, moderately cold-tolerant ‘Campbell Early’ and cold-susceptible ‘Muscat Baily A’, exposed to freezing temperatures were analyzed to identify genes involved in cold hardiness. Selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were evaluated for their expression patterns and transcripts obtained from next generation sequencing were analyzed for their gene ontologies. We assembled ~100 million high-quality trimmed reads, and the functional categorization of transcripts induced by freezing revealed the differential regulation of genes involved in cellular processes, metabolic processes, and cellular metabolic process in ‘Campbell Early’ and ‘Muscat Baily A’ grapes. The most upregulated genes in ‘Campbell Early’ included those encoding a chalcone and stilbene synthase family protein, a RmlC-like cupin superfamily protein, a homolog of carrot EP3-3 chitinase, and a cytochrome P450. The most downregulated genes in the cold-sensitive ‘Muscat Baily A’ included those encoding a 17.6 kDa class II heat shock protein, a HXXXD-type acyl-transferase family protein, and GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 8. All major DEGs identified by the transcriptomic analysis were confirmed to be differentially expressed using real-time PCR. A protein domain analysis using UniprotKB revealed that non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase, nitrilase and cyanoalanine nitrilase were upregulated in both grapevine cultivars. The transcriptome profile of dormant buds exposed to freezing can provide valuable molecular information about the tolerance of grapevines to extremely low temperatures during winter.
Additional key wordsCold tolerant DEG RNA-Seq Transcriptomics Vitis labruscana
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