Growth and cell division of lettuce plants under various ratios of red to far-red light-emitting diodes
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We investigated the effects of various ratios of red to far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on growth characteristics, physiological response, and cell division of red leaf lettuce. Sixteen-day-old lettuce seedlings were transferred into growth chambers and cultivated under various ratios of red (R) and far-red (FR) LEDs (R/FR = 0.7, 1.2, 4.1, and 8.6), only red LEDs (RED), or fluorescent lamps (control) for 22 days. Growth characteristics were measured at 11 and 22 days of treatment. In addition, cell division rate, epidermal cell density, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthesis of leaves were analyzed. Fresh and dry weights and leaf area in all R/FR treatments were higher than those in the control at 22 days of treatment. The R/FR 1.2 had the highest values among R/FR treatments. The number of leaves appeared to increase as R/FR ratio increased. The specific leaf weights in the R/FR ratio of 0.7, 1.2, and 8.6 were similar to the control at 22 days of treatment. The SPAD values in all R/FR treatments were lower than that in the control. All R/FR treatments led to a longer leaf shape than the control. The percentage of cells in the G2M phase, indicating the cell division rate, increased in the R/FR treatments after 4 days of treatment, which supported the growth improvement in the R/FR treatments. The Fv/Fm and the photosynthetic rate in all treatments decreased due to the absence of blue light. The results of this study suggest that the supplementation with far-red LEDs should be considered when designing artificial lighting systems for closed-type plant factories since far-red light affects the vegetative growth of leafy vegetables such as lettuce.
Additional key wordsG2M phase light quality phytochromes plant factory
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