Advertisement

Gypsum effects on plant growth, nutrients, ginsenosides, and their relationship in American ginseng

  • Jinwook Lee
  • Kenneth W. Mudge
Research Report Cultivation Physiology

Abstract

Wild American ginseng is typically found in the shade of deciduous forests, in slightly acidic soils with a relatively high Ca content. Wood-cultivated ginseng is often grown using forest farming agroforestry systems under similar conditions. Supplementing Ca by soil incorporation of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) is often recommended for wood-cultivated ginseng. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gypsum application on ginseng growth, tissue nutrients, and ginsenoside contents in American ginseng. Three-year-old rootlets were grown for 120 days with 0, 2, 4, 8, or 16 Mt·ha−1 gypsum in greenhouse containers. Gypsum application reduced the soil pH slightly and elevated soil electrical conductivity (EC) and available soil Ca and S contents. While the Ca content in the ginseng increased with increasing levels of applied gypsum, shoot and root growth decreased. Root fresh weight prior to transplanting primarily affected the contents of ginsenoside Re, Rb1, Rc, and Rd and total ginsenosides. Gypsum treatment increased ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rd and total ginsenoside contents. Furthermore, soil Ca, Mn, Cu, and Al contents positively correlated with total ginsenoside, but Mg was negatively correlated. HPLC analysis of root ginsenosides revealed that, although the concentrations of ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, and Rd increased with gypsum treatment, the contents of total ginsenosides were reduced. Changes in concentration may result from reduced root growth. Therefore, the results suggest that excess gypsum application (over 2 Mt·ha−1) is not beneficial for American ginseng production due to reduced plant growth.

Additional key words

agroforestry systems ginseng EC ginsenosides HPLC 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bakker, M.R., C. Nys, and J.F. Picard. 1999. The effects of liming and gypsum applications on a sessile oak (Quercus petraea (M.) Liebl.) stand at La Croix-Scaille (French Ardennes) I. Site characteristics, soil chemistry and aerial biomass. Plant Soil 206:99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baribault, T.W., R.K. Kobe, and D.E. Rothstein. 2010. Soil calcium, nitrogen, and water are correlated with aboveground net primary production in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecol. Manage. 260:723–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beyfuss, R.L. 1999. American ginseng production in woodlots. Agroforestry Notes 14:1–4.Google Scholar
  4. Chan, S.-W. 2012. Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea and Schisandra chinensis. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 63:75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Corbit, R.M., J.F.S. Ferreira, S.D. Ebbs, and L.L. Murphy. 2005. Simplified extraction of ginsenosides from American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) for high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:9867–9873.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Courtney, R.G., S.N. Jordan, and T. Harrington. 2009. Physico-chemical changes in bauxite residue following application of spent mushroom compost and gypsum. Land Degrad. Develop. 20:572–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Farina, M.P.W., P. Channon, and G.R. Thibaud. 2000. A comparison of strategies for ameliorating subsoil acidity II. Long-term soil effects. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 64:652–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fournier, A.R., J.T.A. Proctor, L. Gauthier, S. Khanizadeh, A. Belanger, A. Gosselin, and M. Dorais. 2003. Understory light and root ginsenosides in forest-grown Panax quinquefolius. Phytochemistry 63:777–782.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ila’ava, V.P., P. Blamey, and C.J. Asher. 2000. Effects of lime and gypsum on growth of sweet potato in two strongly acid soils. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 51:1031–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Konsler, T.R. and J.E. Shelton. 1990. Lime and phosphorus effects on American ginseng: I. Growth, soil fertility, and root tissue nutrient status response. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 115:570–574.Google Scholar
  11. Konsler, T.R., S.W. Zito, J.E. Shelton, and E.J. Staba. 1990. Lime and phosphorus effects on American ginseng II. Root and leaf ginsenoside content and their relationship. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 115:575–580.Google Scholar
  12. Li, T.S.C. and G. Mazza. 1999. Correlations between leaf and soil mineral concentrations and ginsenoside contents in American Ginseng. HortScience 34:85–87.Google Scholar
  13. Li, T.S.C., G. Mazza, A.C. Cottrell, and L. Gao. 1996. Ginsenosides in roots and leaves of American ginseng. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:717–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lim, W., F. Vermeylen, and K.W. Mudge. 2005. Effects of population, age, and cultivation methods on ginsenoside content of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:8498–8505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim, W., K.W. Mudge, and J. Lee. 2006. Effect of water stress on ginsenoside production and growth of American ginseng. HortTechnology 16:517–522.Google Scholar
  16. Loveday, J. 1976. Relative significance of electrolyte and cation exchange effects when gypsum is applied to a sodic clay soil. Aust. J. Soil Res. 14:362–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McLay, C.D.A., G.S.P. Ritchie, and W.M. Porter. 1994. Amelioration of subsurface acidity in sandy soils in low rainfall regions: I. Responses of wheat and lupins to surface-applied gypsum and lime. Aust. J. Soil Res. 32:835–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mora, M.L., B. Schnettler, and R. Demanet. 1999. Effect of liming and gypsum on soil chemistry, yield, and mineral composition of ryegrass grown in an acidic andisol. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 30:1251–1266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nadeau, I., A. Olivier, and R.R. Simard. 1999. Growing American ginseng in maple forests as an alternative land-use system in Quebec, Canada. Agroforestry Systems 44:345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nadeau, I., R.R. Simard, and A. Olivier. 2003. The impact of lime and organic fertilization on the growth of wild-simulated American ginseng. Can. J. Plant Sci. 83:603–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patra, D.D., A. Prasad, M. Anwar, D. Singh, S. Chand, B. Ram, R.S. Katiyar, and S. Kumar. 2002. Performance of lemongrass cultivars intercropped with chamomile under sodic soils with different levels of gypsum application. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 33:1707–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Persons, W.S. and J.M. Davis. 2007. Growing & marketing ginseng, goldenseal & other woodland medicinals. Bright Mountain Books, Fairview, NC.Google Scholar
  23. Phillips, S.B., W.R. Raun, G.V. Johnson, and W.E. Thomason. 2000. Effect of dual applied phosphorus and gypsum on wheat forage and grain yield. J. Plant Nutr. 23:251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Proctor, J.T.A. and W.G. Bailey. 1987. Ginseng: Industry, Botany, and Culture. Hort. Rev. 9:187–236.Google Scholar
  25. Sanderson, K.R. and L.J. Eaton. 2004. Gypsum-An alternative to chemical fertilizers in lowbush blueberry production. Small Fruits Rev. 3:57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sanderson, K.R., M.R. Carter, and J.A. Ivany. 1996a. Effects of gypsum on yield and nutrient status of native lowbush blueberry. Can. J. Plant Sci. 76:361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sanderson, K.R., J.B. Sanderson, and J.A. Ivany. 1996b. Supplemental soil sulphur increases cabbage yield. Can. J. Plant Sci. 76:857–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharma, D.P. 1986. Effect of gypsum application on long term changes in soil properties and crop growth in sodic soils under field conditions. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 156:166–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stoltz, L.P. 1982. Leaf symptoms, yield, and composition of mineral-deficient American ginseng. HortScience 17:740–741.Google Scholar
  30. Toma, M., M.E. Sumner, G. Weeks, and M. Saigusa. 1999. Long-term effects of gypsum on crop yield and subsoil chemical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 63:891–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Viator, R.P., J.L. Kovar, and W.B. Hallmark. 2002. Gypsum and compost effects on sugarcane root growth, yield, and plant nutrients. Agron. J. 94:1332–1336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vizcayno-Soto, G. and B. Côté. 2004. Boundary-line approach to determine standards of nutrition for mature trees from spatial variation of growth and foliar nutrient concentrations in natural environments. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 35:2965–2985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wolkowski, R.P. 2000. Land application of crushed gypsum wallboard waste for alfalfa. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 31:187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yu, J., T. Lei, I. Shainberg, A.I. Mamedov, and G.J. Levy. 2003. Infiltration and erosion in soils treated with dry PAM and gypsum. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 67:630–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HorticultureCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Tree Fruit Research LaboratoryUSDA-ARSWenatcheeUSA

Personalised recommendations