Advertisement

Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology

, Volume 53, Issue 5, pp 415–420 | Cite as

In vitro propagation of myco-heterotrophic Gastrodia elata

  • Eung-Jun Park
  • Wi Young Lee
  • Jin Kwon Ahn
Research Report Tissue Culture/Biotechnology

Abstract

Gastrodia elata must establish symbiotic associations with different compatible fungi at seed germination and during vegetative growth. One of the major problems associated with its field production is the degeneration of tubers, which is mainly caused by multiple regeneration via vegetative propagation using immature tubers. To overcome this problem, an in vitro asexual propagation method via artificial pollination was developed. Seeds were first germinated on medium containing a leaf-disc from four different Quercus species, previously infected with Mycena osmundicola. Among the four species tested, Q. acutissima was determined to be the best organic resource and the germination rate reached up to 40.4% when a leaf-disc (2 × 2 cm) was provided. Subsequent infection with Armillaria mellea allowed the protocorms to further develop into immature tubers, which can be directly used for field production. In this study, we established an in vitro symbiotic propagation system of G. elata, which might be an efficient way to prevent degeneration of G. elata tubers and the reduction of yield in the field.

Additional key words

achlorophyllous orchid Armillaria melle Mycena osmundicola symbiotic propagation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bidartondo, M.I. 2005. The evolutionary ecology of myco-heterotrophy. New Phytol. 167:335–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bidartondo, M.I. and T.D. Bruns. 2001. Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): Widespread phylogenetic and geographical structure. Mol. Ecol. 10:2285–2295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang, H.M. and P.H. But. 1986. Pharmacology and application of Chinese materia medica, Vol. 1. World Scientific, Singapore.Google Scholar
  4. Clements, M.A., H. Muir, and P.J. Cribb. 1986. A preliminary report on the symbiotic germination of European terrestrial orchids. Kew. Bull. 41:437–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Huang, Z.L. 1985. Pharmacologic studies and clinical applications of Gastrodia elata Bl. J. Modern Develop. Trad. Media 5:251–254.Google Scholar
  6. Kikuchi, G., M. Higuchi, H. Yoshimura, T. Morota, and A. Suzuki. 2008. In vitro symbiosis between Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae) and Armillaria Kummer (Tricholomataceae) species isolated from the orchid tuber. J. Jap. Bot. 83:77–87.Google Scholar
  7. Kikuchi, G., M. Higuchi, T. Morota, E. Nagasawa, and A. Suzuki. 2008. Fungal symbiont and cultivation test of Gastrodia elata Blume (Orchidaceae). J. Jap. Bot. 83:88–95.Google Scholar
  8. Kim, Y.I., K.J. Chang, K.H. Ka, H. Hur, I.P. Hong, J.O. Shim, T.S. Lee, J.Y. Lee, and M.W. Lee. 2006. Seed germination of Gastrodia elata using symbiotic fungi, Mycena osmundicola. Mycobiology 34:79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kusano, S. 1911. Gastrodia elata and its symbiotic association with Armillaria mellea. Imperial Univ. Tokyo J. College Agr. 4:1–65.Google Scholar
  10. Leake, J.R. 1994. The biology of myco-heterotrophic (’saprophytic’) plants. New Phytol. 127:171–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Leake, J.R. 2005. Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the fungi in myco-heterotrophys and debunking the ’saprophytic’ plant myth. Mycol. 19:113–122.Google Scholar
  12. Liu, H., C. Feng, Y.B. Luo, B.S. Chen, Z.S. Wang, and H.Y. Gu. 2010. Studies of mycorrhizal fungi of Chinese orchids and their role in orchid conservation in China A review. Bot. Rev. 76: 241–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McKendrick, S.L., J.R. Leake, D.L. Taylor, and D.J. Read. 2000. Symbiotic germination and development of myco-heterotrophic plants in nature: Ontogeny of Corallorhiza trifida and characterization of its mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 145:523–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rasmussen, H.N. 1995. Terrestrial orchids from seed to mycotrophic plant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rasmussen, H.N. and F.N. Rasmussen. 2009. Orchid mycorrhiza: Implications of a mycophagous life style. Oikos 118:334–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Smith, S.E. and D.J. Read. 1997. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  17. Umata, H. 1997. Formation of endomycorrhizas by an achlorophyllous orchid, Erythrorchis ochobiensis, and Auricularia polytricha. Mycoscience 38:335–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yagame, T., M. Yamato, M. Mii, A. Suzuki, and K. Iwase. 2007. Developmental processes of achlorophyllous orchid, Epipogium roseum: Form seed germination to flowering under symbiotic cultivation with mycorrhizal fungus. J. Plant Res. 120:229–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Xu, J.T. and S.X. Guo. 2000. Retrospect on the research of the cultivation of Gastrodia elata Bl, a rare traditional Chinese medicine. Chin. Med. J. 113:686–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Xu, J.T. and S.X. Guo. 1991. The relationship of nutrient between Gastrodia elataMycena osmundicola and Armillaria mella and its application in the cultivation. J. Med. Res. 1:31–32.Google Scholar
  21. Zou, N., X. Bai, J. Lv, J. Yang, G. Xu, and D. Sun. 2010. Study on symbiotic mechanism between Gastrodia elata Blume and Armillaria mellea in tissue culture system. Medicinal Plant 1:91–92.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Horticultural Science 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Genetic ResourcesKorea Forest Research InstituteSuwonKorea

Personalised recommendations