Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 389–398

Temporary immersion systems for Amaryllidaceae alkaloids biosynthesis by Pancratium maritimum L. shoot culture

  • Vasil Georgiev
  • Ivan Ivanov
  • Strahil Berkov
  • Atanas Pavlov
Original Article


The alkaloid patterns of sea daffodil (Pancratium maritimum L.) shoot culture, cultivated in a temporary immersion cultivation system were investigated. The shoots accumulated maximal amounts of biomass (0.8 g dry biomass/L and Growth Index = 1.6) at immersion frequency with 15 min flooding and 12 h stand-by periods. At this regime P. maritimum shoots achieved the highest degree of utilization of carbon source. Twenty-two alkaloids, belonging to narciclasine, galanthamine, haemanthamine, lycorine, montanine, tazettine, homolycorine and tyramine types were identified in intracellular and extracellular alkaloid extracts. The immersion frequency affected strongly the capacity of alkaloid biosynthesis in P. maritimum shoots and at the optimum conditions of cultivation, the total intracellular alkaloid content reached up to 3,469 μg/g dry biomass. The main biosynthesized alkaloids were haemanthamine (900.1 μg/g) and lycorine (799.9 μg/g). The obtained results proved that temporary immersion technology, as a cultivation approach, and P. maritimum shoots, as a biological system, are prospective for producing wide range bioactive alkaloids.


Sea daffodil RITA systems Multi-metabolite analyses Haemanthamine Lycorine 



Murashige and Skoog medium


1-naphthaleneacetic acid




Double-distilled water


Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


Accumulated dry biomass


Growth indexes dry weight



Copyright information

© Society for Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasil Georgiev
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ivan Ivanov
    • 1
    • 4
  • Strahil Berkov
    • 3
  • Atanas Pavlov
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Applied Biotechnologies, The Stephan Angeloff Institute of MicrobiologyBulgarian Academy of SciencesPlovdivBulgaria
  2. 2.Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit ResearchFlorida A & M UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  3. 3.AgroBioInstituteSofiaBulgaria
  4. 4.Department of Organic ChemistryUniversity of Food TechnologiesPlovdivBulgaria

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