Réanimation

, Volume 22, Supplement 3, pp 548–566

Assistance extracorporelle au cours du syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (chez l’adulte et l’enfant, à l’exclusion du nouveau-né). Conférence de consensus organisée par la Société de réanimation de langue française

  • C. Richard
  • L. Argaud
  • A. Blet
  • T. Boulain
  • L. Contentin
  • A. Dechartres
  • J. -M. Dejode
  • L. Donetti
  • M. Fartoukh
  • D. Fletcher
  • K. Kuteifan
  • S. Lasocki
  • J. -M. Liet
  • A. -C. Lukaszewicz
  • H. Mal
  • E. Maury
  • D. Osman
  • H. Outin
  • J. -C. Richard
  • F. Schneider
  • F. Tamion
Référentiel / Guidelines

Résumé

En 2009, à l’occasion de l’épidémie de grippe H1N1, la description de formes très sévères de syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA) s’est accompagnée d’un renouveau de l’utilisation des techniques d’assistance respiratoire extracorporelle, aboutissant à considérer qu’elles avaient une place dans l’algorithme de prise en charge du SDRA. La rareté des indications et l’absence de preuves formelles de l’impact sur le pronostic des patients ont amené la Société de réanimation de langue française (SRLF) à organiser en partenariat avec la Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar), la Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF), le Groupe francophone de réanimation et d’urgences pédiatriques (GFRUP), la Société française de perfusion (Sofraperf), la Société française de chirurgie thoracique et cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et la Société espagnole de soins intensifs (SEMICYUC), une conférence de consensus sur l’assistance extracorporelle au cours du SDRA. Un jury, composé de réanimateurs, a ainsi élaboré 65 recommandations correspondant aux cinq questions qui leur étaient posées : 1) quelles sont les techniques disponibles ? 2) Quels patients relèvent d’une assistance extracorporelle ? 3) Comment réaliser l’assistance extracorporelle ? 4) Quand et comment arrêter une assistance extracorporelle ? 5) Quelle organisation proposer ? La rédaction de ces recommandations a pris en compte les données de la littérature scientifique, analysée selon la méthode GRADE, ainsi que les données recueillies à l’occasion d’une réunion rassemblant experts et professionnels.

Mots clés

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) Extracorporeal CO2removal (ECCO2R) Syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA) Ventilation protectrice 

Extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (Adult and Paediatric). Consensus conference organized by the French Intensive Care Society

Abstract

The H1N1 influenza epidemics in 2009 led a substantial number of people to develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory hypoxemia. In these patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as rescue oxygenation therapy. Several randomized clinical trials and observational studies suggested that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation associated with protective mechanical ventilation could improve outcome, but its efficacy remains uncertain. Organized by the Société de réanimation de langue française (SRLF) in conjunction with the Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar), the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF), the Groupe francophone de réanimation et d’urgences pédiatriques (GFRUP), the Société française de perfusion (Sofraperf), the Société française de chirurgie thoracique et cardiovasculaire (SFCTV) et the Société espagnole de soins intensifs (SEMICYUC), a consensus conference was held in December 2013 and a jury of 13 members wrote 65 recommendations to answer the five following questions regarding the place of extracorporeal life support for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: 1) What are the available techniques? 2) Which patients could benefit from extracorporeal life support? 3) How to perform extracorporeal life support? 4) How and when to stop extracorporeal life support? 5) Which organization should be recommended? To write the recommendations, evidence-base medicine (GRADE method), expert panel opinions, and shared decisions taken by all the thirteen members of the jury of the consensus conference were taken into account.

Keywords

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) Extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) — Protective ventilation 

Supplementary material

13546_2014_858_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (325 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 324 KB.

Références

  1. 1.
    Ferguson ND, Fan E, Camporota L, et al (2012) The Berlin definition of ARDS: an expanded rationale, justification, and supplementary material. Intensive Care Med 38:1573–1582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Slutsky AS, Ranieri VM (2013) Ventilator-induced lung injury. N Engl J Med 369:2126–2136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gattinoni L, Pesenti A, Mascheroni D, et al (1986) Low-frequency positive-pressure ventilation with extracorporeal CO2 removal in severe acute respiratory failure. JAMA 256:881–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morris AH, Wallace CJ, Menlove RL, et al (1994) Randomized clinical trial of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation and extracorporeal CO2 removal for adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:295–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davies A, Jones D, Bailey M, et al (2009) Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. JAMA 302:1888–1895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Noah MA, Peek GJ, Finney SJ, et al (2011) Referral to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center and mortality among patients with severe 2009 influenza A(H1N1). JAMA 306:1659–1668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Peek GJ, Mugford M, Tiruvoipati R, et al (2009) Efficacy and economic assessment of conventional ventilatory support versus extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe adult respiratory failure (CESAR): a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Lancet 374:1351–1363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pham T, Combes A, Roze H, et al (2013) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for pandemic influenza A(H1N1)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome: a cohort study and propensity-matched analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187:276–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brodie D, Bacchetta M (2011) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for ARDS in adults. N Engl J Med 365:1905–1914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, et al (2012) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA 307:2526–2533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abrams D, Brodie D (2013) Emerging indications for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults with respiratory failure. Ann Am Thorac Soc 10:371–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bein T, Weber-Carstens S, Goldmann A, et al (2013) Lower tidal volume strategy (approximately 3 ml/kg) combined with extracorporeal CO2 removal versus ‘conventional’ protective ventilation (6 ml/kg) in severe ARDS: the prospective randomized Xtravent-study. Intensive Care Med 39:847–856PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Atkins D, Best D, Briss PA, et al (2004) Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 328:1490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, et al (2008) GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 336:924–926PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abrams D, Brodie D, Combes A (2013) What is new in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for ARDS in adults? Intensive Care Med 39:2028–2030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Combes A, Bacchetta M, Brodie D, et al (2012) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure in adults. Curr Opin Crit Care 18:99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gattinoni L, Carlesso E, Langer T (2011) Clinical review: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Crit Care 15:243PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sidebotham D, Allen SJ, McGeorge A, et al (2012) Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in adults: practical aspects of circuits, cannulae, and procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 26:893–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Navia JL, Atik FA, Beyer EA, Ruda Vega P (2005) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with right axillary artery perfusion. Ann Thorac Surg 79:2163–2165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bein T, Weber F, Philipp A, et al (2006) A new pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist in critical hypoxemia/hypercapnia. Crit Care Med 34:1372–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cove ME, Maclaren G, Federspiel WJ, Kellum JA (2012) Bench to bedside review: Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal, past present and future. Crit Care 16:232PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sidebotham D, McGeorge A, McGuinness S, et al (2010) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treating severe cardiac and respiratory failure in adults: part 2-technical considerations. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 24:164–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt M, Zogheib E, Rozé H, et al (2013) The PRESERVE mortality risk score and analysis of long-term outcomes after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med 39:1704–1713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hirose H, Yamane K, Marhefka G, Cavarocchi N (2012) Right ventricular rupture and tamponade caused by malposition of the Avalon cannula for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Cardiothorac Surg 7:36PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    2013 ELSO Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Extracorporeal Life Support, Extracorporeal Life Support Organisation. www.elsonet.org
  26. 26.
    Ensminger SM, Puehler T, Benzinger M, Morshuis M, Kizner L, Gummert JF (2012) The role of extracorporeal mechanical assists. Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology 16:192–201Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Toomasian JM, Bartlett RH (2011) Hemolysis and ECMO pumps in the 21st Century. Perfusion 26:5–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Del Sorbo LCM, Fan E (Published online October 17, 2013) Extracorporeal life support for adults with severe acute respiratory failure. Lancet Respir www.thelancet.com/respiratory. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70197-8 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kohler K, Valchanov K, Nias G, Vuylsteke A (2013) ECMO cannula review. Perfusion 28:114–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lequier L, Horton SB, McMullan DM, Bartlett RH (2013) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:S7–S12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leger PL, Guilbert J, Isambert S, et al (2013) Pediatric single-lumen cannula venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a French center experience. Artif Organs 37:57–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Guerin C, Reignier J, Richard JC, et al (2013) Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 368:2159–2168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khemani RG, Newth CJ (2010) The design of future pediatric mechanical ventilation trials for acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:1465–1474PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zapol WM, Snider MT, Hill JD, et al (1979) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in severe acute respiratory failure. A randomized prospective study. JAMA 242:2193–2196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miller RR 3rd, Markewitz BA, Rolfs RT, et al (2013) Clinical findings and demographic factors associated with ICU admission in Utah due to novel 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection. Chest 137:752–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brechot N, Luyt CE, Schmidt M, et al (2013) Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory cardiovascular dysfunction during severe bacterial septic shock. Crit Care Med 41:1616–1626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Borchard A, Schwappach DL, Barbir A, Bezzola P (2012) A systematic review of the effectiveness, compliance, and critical factors for implementation of safety checklists in surgery. Ann Surg 256:925–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ball RD, Scouras NE, Orebaugh S, et al (2012) Randomized, prospective, observational simulation study comparing residents’ needle-guided vs free-hand ultrasound techniques for central venous catheter access. Br J Anaesth 108:72–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ranasinghe AM, Peek GJ, Roberts N, et al (2004) The use of transesophageal echocardiography to demonstrate obstruction of venous drainage cannula during ECMO. ASAIO J 50:619–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Langer T, Vecchi V, Belenkiy SM, et al (2013) Pressure-guided positioning of bicaval dual-lumen catheters for venovenous extracorporeal gas exchange. Intensive Care Med 39:151–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Trimlett RH, Cordingley JJ, Griffiths MJ, et al (2011) A modified technique for insertion of dual lumen bicaval cannulae for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Intensive Care Med 37:1036–1037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Paden ML, Conrad SA, Rycus PT, Thiagarajan RR (2013) Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Report 2012. ASAIO J 59:202–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koster A, Dyke CM, Aldea G, et al (2007) Bivalirudin during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with previous or acute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and heparin antibodies: results of the CHOOSE-ON trial. Ann Thorac Surg 83:572–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yuan S, Tsukahara E, De La Cruz K, Kelly RB (2013) How we provide transfusion support for neonatal and pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Transfusion 53:1157–1165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hoover NG, Heard M, Reid C, et al (2008) Enhanced fluid management with continuous venovenous hemofiltration in pediatric respiratory failure patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Intensive Care Med 34:2241–2247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ejike JC, Schenkman KA, Seidel K, et al (2006) Cerebral oxygenation in neonatal and pediatric patients during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7:154–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bembea MM, Annich G, Rycus P, et al (2013) Variability in anticoagulation management of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: an international survey. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:e77–e84PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rollins MD, Hubbard A, Zabrocki L, et al (2012) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation trends for pediatric respiratory failure and central nervous system injury. J Pediatr Surg 47:68–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Haefner SM, Bratton SL, Annich GM, et al (2003) Complications of intermittent prone positioning in pediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure. Chest 123:1589–1594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mac Laren G, Combes A, Bartlett RH (2012) Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for adult respiratory failure: life support in the new era. Intensive Care Med 38:210–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Marasco SF, Lukas G, McDonald M, et al (2008) Review of ECMO (extra corporeal membrane oxygenation) support in critically ill adult patients. Heart Lung Circ 17:S41–S47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Roch A, Lepaul-Ercole R, Grisoli D, et al (2010) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe influenza A (H1N1) acute respiratory distress syndrome: a prospective observational comparative study. Intensive Care Med 36:1899–1905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ullrich R, Lorber C, Roder G, et al (1999) Controlled airway pressure therapy, nitric oxide inhalation, prone position, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as components of an integrated approach to ARDS. Anesthesiology 91:1577–1586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Freeman CL, Bennett TD, Casper TC, et al (2014) Pediatric and neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: does center volume impact mortality? Crit Care Med 42:512–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Karamlou T, Vafaeezadeh M, Parrish AM, et al (2013) Increased extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center case volume is associated with improved extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survival among pediatric patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 145:470–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Forrest P, Ratchford J, Burns B, et al (2011) Retrieval of critically ill adults using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: an Australian experience. Intensive Care Med 37:824–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Roch A, Hraiech S, Masson E, et al (2013) Outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and brought to a referral center. Intensive Care Med 40:74–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cabrera AG, Prodhan P, Cleves MA, et al (2011) Interhospital transport of children requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for cardiac dysfunction. Congenit Heart Dis 6:202–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Richard JC, Pham T, Brun-Buisson C, et al (2012) Interest of a simple on-line screening registry for measuring ICU burden related to an influenza pandemic. Crit Care 16:R118PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Société de réanimation de langue française (SRLF) and Springer-Verlag France 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Richard
    • 1
  • L. Argaud
    • 2
  • A. Blet
    • 3
  • T. Boulain
    • 4
  • L. Contentin
    • 5
  • A. Dechartres
    • 6
  • J. -M. Dejode
    • 7
  • L. Donetti
    • 8
  • M. Fartoukh
    • 9
  • D. Fletcher
    • 10
  • K. Kuteifan
    • 11
  • S. Lasocki
    • 12
  • J. -M. Liet
    • 13
  • A. -C. Lukaszewicz
    • 14
  • H. Mal
    • 15
  • E. Maury
    • 16
  • D. Osman
    • 17
  • H. Outin
    • 18
  • J. -C. Richard
    • 19
  • F. Schneider
    • 20
  • F. Tamion
    • 21
  1. 1.Service de réanimation médicale, hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, AP-HP, hôpital de Bicêtre, EA-4533université Paris-SudLe Kremlin-BicêtreFrance
  2. 2.Service de réanimation médicale, hospices civils de Lyongroupement hospitalier Édouard-HerriotLyonFrance
  3. 3.Département d’anesthésie-réanimation, centre de traitement des brulés, AP-HPhôpitaux universitaires Saint-Louis-Lariboisière-Fernand-Widal, hôpital Saint-LouisParisFrance
  4. 4.Service de réanimation polyvalenteCHR d’Orléans, hôpital de La SourceOrléansFrance
  5. 5.Service de réanimation polyvalenteCHRU de Tours, hôpital BretonneauToursFrance
  6. 6.Inserm U1153, équipe « Méthodes en évaluation thérapeutique des maladies chroniques », centre de recherche épidémiologie et biostatistique, centre Cochrane françaisHôtel-DieuParisFrance
  7. 7.Réanimation pédiatriqueCHU de Nantes, hôpital Mère-EnfantNantesFrance
  8. 8.Service de réanimationCH de Le Raincy-MontfermeilMontfermeilFrance
  9. 9.Unité de réanimation médicochirurgicale, AP-HPhôpitaux universitaires Est-Parisien, hôpital TenonParisFrance
  10. 10.Département d’anesthésiehôpitaux universitaires Paris Île-de-France Ouest, AP-HP, hôpital Raymond-PoincaréGarchesFrance
  11. 11.Service de réanimation médicalehôpital Emile-MullerMulhouseFrance
  12. 12.Pole d’anesthésie-réanimation, CHU d’Angers, LUNAM Universitéuniversité d’AngersAngersFrance
  13. 13.Réanimation pédiatriqueCHU de Nantes, hôpital Mère-EnfantNantesFrance
  14. 14.Département d’anesthésie-réanimation, de réanimation chirurgicale et postopératoire, AP-HP, groupe hospitalier Saint-Louis-Lariboisière-Fernand-Widalhôpital LariboisièreParisFrance
  15. 15.Service de pneumologiehôpitaux universitaires Paris-Nord-Val-de-Seine, AP-HP, hôpital BichatParisFrance
  16. 16.Service de réanimation médicale, AP-HPhôpitaux universitaires Est-Parisien, hôpital Saint-AntoineParisFrance
  17. 17.Service de réanimation médicalehôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, AP-HP, hôpital de BicêtreLe Kremlin-BicêtreFrance
  18. 18.Service de réanimation médicochirurgicalecentre hospitalier intercommunal de Poissy-Saint-Germain-en-LayePoissyFrance
  19. 19.Service de réanimation médicale, hospices civils de Lyonhôpital de la Croix-RousseLyonFrance
  20. 20.Service de réanimation médicale, hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg et faculté de médecineuniversité de Strasbourg, hôpital de HautepierreStrasbourgFrance
  21. 21.Service de réanimation médicale, Inserm U1096, IRIB, CHU Charles-Nicolleuniversité de RouenRouenFrance

Personalised recommendations