Réanimation

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 613–624 | Cite as

Complications neurologiques des traitements anticancéreux

Mise au Point / Update
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Résumé

Chez les patients d’hémato-oncologie, les complications neurologiques liées aux traitements anticancéreux sont fréquentes et graves. Elles sont dominées quantitativement par des atteintes périphériques souvent invalidantes. Elles peuvent aussi, moins fréquemment, comprendre des atteintes centrales, alors associées à une morbimortalité non négligeable. Le diagnostic différentiel principal reste l’atteinte infectieuse du système nerveux central chez ces patients immunodéprimés. Une infiltration neurologique par la maladie maligne est aussi à éliminer. Certaines de ces atteintes neurologiques sont facilement reconnaissables et potentiellement réversibles, à condition d’en faire rapidement le diagnostic étiologique et de mettre en œuvre les mesures symptomatiques et étiologiques adaptées. Des mesures de neuroprotection sont également en cours d’évaluation afin de diminuer les effets secondaires neurologiques des chimiothérapies anticancéreuses.

Mots clés

Complication Neurologique Tumeurs solides Hémopathies malignes Diagnostic 

Cancer treatment-related neurological toxicity

Abstract

Cancer treatment-related neurological toxicity is common and may result in severe complications. Peripheral involvement, often incapacitating, remains the most frequent involvement. Central involvement is less frequent, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis include opportunistic infections and neurological infiltration by the malignancy. Some of these conditions are easily recognizable and potentially reversible, with a prompt diagnosis and early implementation of appropriate supportive and etiological therapies. Neuroprotection is also being evaluated to reduce side-effects resulting from cancer chemotherapy.

Keywords

Complication Neurologic Solid tumor Hematologic neoplasm Diagnosis 

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Copyright information

© Société de réanimation de langue française (SRLF) and Springer-Verlag France 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Service de réanimation polyvalentehôpital André-MignotLe ChesnayFrance
  2. 2.Service de réanimation médicalehôpital Saint-LouisParisFrance

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