Brazilian Journal of Physics

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 552–560 | Cite as

Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

General and Applied Physics

Abstract

The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth’s magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13–14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

Keywords

Solar-terrestrial connections Geospace environment Geomagnetic storms Geomagnetically induced currents 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Denny Oliveira acknowledges NASA for the financial support provided by grant NNH13ZDA001N-HSR to UMBC/GPHI. Dr. Chigomezyo Ngwira was supported by NASA Grant NNG11PL10A 670.157 to CUA/IACS. The authors very kindly thank an anonimous reviewer for carefully evaluating this manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Física 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.Goddard Planetary Heliophysics InstituteUniversity of Maryland Baltimore CountyBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsCatholic University of AmericaWashingtonUSA

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