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Brazilian Journal of Physics

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 730–755 | Cite as

Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

  • Carlos A. Bertulani
  • Mahir S. HusseinEmail author
Nuclear Physics

Abstract

In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in pursuing a career in nuclear physics.

Keywords

Nuclear physics Exotic nuclei Quark-Gluon plasma Applications 

Notes

Acknowledgments

CAB is supported by the U.S. NSF Grant No. 1415656, and U.S. DOE grant No. DE-FG02- 08ER41533 and by the Fulbright U.S. Scholar Program. MSH is partially supported by the Brazilian funding agencies, FAPESP, CNPq, CAPES/ITA-PVS Fellowship Program, The INCT-IQ/MCT, and CEPID-CEPOF.

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Copyright information

© Sociedade Brasileira de Física 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyTexas A&M University-CommerceCommerceUSA
  2. 2.Instituto de Estudos Avançados and Instituto de FísicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de FísicaInstituto Tecnológico de AeronáuticaSão José dos CamposBrazil

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