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- Choi, J., Wang, M.C., Cha, R.Y.S. et al. Biomed. Eng. Lett. (2013) 3: 201. doi:10.1007/s13534-013-0113-z
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Graphene, a single-atomic-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, has been widely investigated for its potential applications in many areas, including biological interfaces, due to its superb electromechanical, optical and chemical properties. In particular, its mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility allow graphene to be configured and utilized as ultra-compliant interfaces for implantable bioelectronics. Furthermore, the superior carrier mobility and transconductance level of graphene field-effect devices lend themselves as high performance/high sensitivity field-effect signal transducers, whose source-drain current is modulated by external field or charge perturbation from chemical and/or biological events. In this article, we review recent developments in graphenebased bioelectronics, focusing on both materials synthesis/fabrication as well as cellular interfaces, and discuss challenges and opportunities for ultra-compliant, highly sensitive, three-dimensional (3D) bioelectronic interfaces in the future.