Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 307–320 | Cite as

Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Ten Edible Freshwater Fish Species from Major Rivers and Lakes in Korea: Distribution and Human Exposure by Consumption

  • Mai Duc Hung
  • Nguyen Hoang Lam
  • Hui Ho Jeong
  • Hyeon Ji Jeong
  • Da Jin Jeong
  • Gyeong Hwa Park
  • Pil Jae Kim
  • Jeong Eun Oh
  • Hyeon Seo ChoEmail author
Original article



In this study, we determined 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) concentrations in 514 samples of blood, liver, muscle and egg tissues of ten edible freshwater fish species from major rivers and lakes in Korea.


The sample was extracted by ion-pair extraction (IPE) method and analyzed by Shimadzu HPLCMSMS 8040. Besides, the Total Daily Intake (TDI) of PFASs and potential risk of human exposure by freshwater fish consumption in several scenarios were investigated.


The greatest total PFASs concentration in each fish tissue was found as 925 ng/mL in a crucian carp (Carassius auratus) for blood, 598 ng/g ww in a Korea piscivorous chub (Opsariichthys uncirostris) for liver, 283 ng/g ww in a crucian carp (Carassius auratus) for egg, and 129 ng/g ww in a skygager (Erythroculter erythropterus) for muscle. The greatest mean concentration of PFOS was determined in blood (38.8 ng/mL), followed by egg (22.0 ng/ww), liver (21.1 ng/g ww) and muscle tissues (1.14 ng/g ww). Addition to fish species and tissues, several other factors such as sex, habitat and fish traits, may affect the bioaccumulation of PFASs in fish. The consumption guideline of one meal per week for skygager is strongly applied for skygager caught from a middle stream of Nakdong River watershed. The total daily intake of PFASs by freshwater fish muscle tissues consumption were ranged from 0 to 12.4 ng/kg b.w./day for PFOS and from 0 to 0.05 ng/kg b.w./ day for PFOA.


This study firstly reports the tissues distribution and human consumption exposure of PFASs in various edible freshwater fish from major rivers and lakes in Korea. The contamination levels of PFOS and PFOA in the fish muscles in this study were unlikely to pose an immediate risk to the Korean general population or Korean freshwater fish consumer population.


PFASs PFOS PFOA Freshwater fish Total daily intake Korea 


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Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in Ten Edible Freshwater Fish Species from Major Rivers and Lakes in Korea: Distribution and Human Exposure by Consumption


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mai Duc Hung
    • 1
  • Nguyen Hoang Lam
    • 1
  • Hui Ho Jeong
    • 1
  • Hyeon Ji Jeong
    • 1
  • Da Jin Jeong
    • 1
  • Gyeong Hwa Park
    • 2
  • Pil Jae Kim
    • 2
  • Jeong Eun Oh
    • 3
  • Hyeon Seo Cho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Fisheries and Ocean SciencesChonnam National UniversityYeosuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Institute of Environmental ResearchIncheonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.College of Chemical Biomolecular & Environmental Engineering in Pusan National UniversityPusanRepublic of Korea

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