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Distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in water from industrialized bays, rivers and agricultural areas in Korea

  • Nguyen Hoang Lam
  • Byung-Kyu Min
  • Chon-Rae Cho
  • Kyung-Hwa Park
  • Ji-Sung Ryu
  • Pil-Je Kim
  • Kyung-Hee Choi
  • Masatoshi Morita
  • Hyeon-Seo ChoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been found in water environment globally. However, the difference on occurrence profiles between PFASs in water from coastal areas and inland rivers or/and agricultural areas is still limited. In this study, the presence of thirteen PFASs in sixty-five surface water samples collected from coastal areas of three southeastern industrialized bays, four major rivers, and six rice field areas in Korea were analyzed. Total PFAS concentrations (ng/L) range from 0.22-73.9 (mean=22.1) for the major rivers, 0.54-3.19 (mean=1.77) for the rice field areas, and <LOQ-27.8 (mean=3.90) for the industrialized bays. The most frequently detected PFASs were perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA (86.2%) for perfluorocarboxylic acids, PFCAs and perfluorooctance sulfonic acid, PFOS (78.5%) for perfluorosulfonic acids, PFSAs. Positive significant Pearson correlations were determined for PFNA and PFDA (p<0.01, r=0.91) and PFOA and PFNA (p<0.01, r= 0.72). The results of this study indicate a general ascending order of PFCAs, PFSAs and PFASs concentrations in six sampling site groups categorized by potential PFASs emission sources as non-source <agricultural source<“outer bay source”<“inner bay source”<municipal source<wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge. Significant differences (Tukey post hoc test in ANOVA, p<0.05) in PFASs concentration in water samples from sampling sites that receive WWTP discharge than those from others were found. Despite a decreasing trend of PFASs contamination in surface water from Nakdong River basin after the restriction of manufacture and usage of PFOS and its related compounds in 2011 was determined in Korea, the results of this study demonstrate the continuing input of PFAS in Korean rivers, rice field areas and industrialized bays. The PFOS and PFOA concentrations in water were below the threshold for adverse health effects. This study provides information for a better understanding of PFASs and the ongoing input of PFASs in Korean aquatic environment.

Keywords

PFOS PFOA Korea Surface water River Coastal water 

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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Environmental Risk Assessment and Health Science and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Hoang Lam
    • 1
  • Byung-Kyu Min
    • 1
  • Chon-Rae Cho
    • 1
  • Kyung-Hwa Park
    • 2
  • Ji-Sung Ryu
    • 2
  • Pil-Je Kim
    • 2
  • Kyung-Hee Choi
    • 2
  • Masatoshi Morita
    • 3
  • Hyeon-Seo Cho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Fisheries and Ocean SciencesChonnam National UniversityYeosuKorea
  2. 2.National Institute of Environmental ResearchIncheonKorea
  3. 3.Institute for Sustainability and PeaceUnited Nations UniversityTokyoJapan

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