Advertisement

Demography

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 699–721 | Cite as

Household Crowding During Childhood and Long-Term Education Outcomes

  • Leonard M. LopooEmail author
  • Andrew S. London
Article

Abstract

Household crowding, or having more household members than rooms in one’s residence, could potentially affect a child’s educational attainment directly through a number of mechanisms. We use U.S. longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to derive new measures of childhood crowding and estimate negative associations between crowding during one’s high school years and, respectively, high school graduation by age 19 and maximum education at age 25. These negative relationships persist in multivariate models in which we control for the influence of a variety of factors, including socioeconomic status and housing-cost burden. Given the importance of educational attainment for a range of midlife and later-life outcomes, this study suggests that household crowding during one’s high school years is an engine of cumulative inequality over the life course.

Keywords

Crowding Education Childhood Life course 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Emily Cardon, Maddy Hamlin, and Mary Stottele for their research assistance on this project.

References

  1. Ahrentzen, S. (2003). Double indemnity or double delight? The health consequences of shared housing and “doubling up.” Journal of Social Issues, 59, 547–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aratani, Y., Chau, M., Wight, V. R., & Addy, S. (2011). Rent burden, housing subsidies and the well-being of children and youth. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University. Retrieved from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_1043.html Google Scholar
  3. Berger, L. M., Heintze, T., Naidich, W. B., & Meyers, M. K. (2008). Subsidized housing and household hardship among low-income single-mother households. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70, 934–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkman, L. F., Ertel, K. A., & Glymour, M. A. (2011). Aging and social intervention: Life course perspectives. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (7th ed., pp. 337–351). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bramley, G. (2012). Affordability, poverty and housing need: Triangulating measures and standards. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 27, 133–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burr, J. A., Mutchler, J. E., & Gerst, K. (2010). Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: Immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65, 772–782.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, W. A. V., Deurloo, M. C., & Dieleman, F. M. (2000). Housing consumption and residential crowding in U.S. housing markets. Journal of Urban Affairs, 22(1), 49–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conley, D. (2001). A room with a view or a room of one’s own? Housing and social stratification. Sociological Forum, 16(2), 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dannefer, D. (1987). Aging as intracohort differentiation: Accentuation, the Matthew effect, and the life course. Sociological Forum, 2, 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dannefer, D. (1988). Age structure, the life course, and “aged heterogeneity”: Prospects for research and theory. Comparative Gerontology, 2, 1–10.Google Scholar
  11. Dannefer, D. (2003). Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: Cross-fertilizing age and social science theory. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, S327–S337.Google Scholar
  12. Eggers, F. J., & Moumen, F. (2013). Analysis of trends in household composition using American Housing Survey data. Washington, DC: Office of Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Retrieved from https://www.huduser.gov/publications/pdf/AHS_HouseholdComposition_v2.pdf Google Scholar
  13. Ellen, I. G., & Dastrup, S. (2012). Housing and the Great Recession. Stanford, CA: Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. Retrieved from http://furmancenter.org/files/publications/HousingandtheGreatRecession.pdf
  14. Evans, G. W., Hart, B., & Maxwell, L. E. (1999). Parental language and verbal responsiveness to children in crowded homes. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1020–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans, G. W., Lepore, S. J., Shejwal, B. R., & Palsane, M. N. (1998). Chronic residential crowding and children’s well-being: An ecological perspective. Child Development, 69, 1514–1523.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, G. W., Saegert, S., & Harris, R. (2001). Residential density and psychological health among children in low-income families. Environment and Behavior, 33, 165–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferraro, K. F., Shippee, T. P., & Shafer, M. H. (2009). Cumulative inequality theory for research on aging and the life course. In V. L. Bengtson, D. Gans, N. M. Putney, & M. Silverstein (Eds.), Handbook of theories of aging (2nd ed., pp. 413–434). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Friedman, S., & Rosenbaum, E. (2004). Nativity status and racial/ethnic differences in access to quality housing: Does homeownership bring greater parity? Housing Policy Debate, 15, 865–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gennetian, L. A., Duncan, G., Knox, V., Vargas, W., Clark-Kaufman, E., & London, A. (2004). How welfare policies affects adolescents’ school outcomes: A synthesis of evidence from experimental studies. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14, 399–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gennetian, L. A., Lopoo, L. M., & London, A. S. (2008). Maternal work hours and adolescents’ school outcomes among low-income families in four urban counties. Demography, 45, 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Goux, D., & Maurin, E. (2005). The effect of overcrowded housing on children’s performance at school. Journal of Public Economics, 89, 797–819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gove, W. R., & Hughes, M. (1983). Overcrowding in the household: An analysis of determinants and effects. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gove, W. R., Hughes, M., & Galle, O. R. (1979). Overcrowding in the home: An empirical investigation of its possible pathological consequences. American Sociological Review, 44, 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hall, M., & Greenman, E. (2013). Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants. Social Science Research, 42, 1712–1725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hendricks, J. (2012). Considering life course concepts. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 226–231.Google Scholar
  26. Holupka, C. S., & Newman, S. J. (2011). The housing and neighborhood conditions of America’s children: Patterns and trends over four decades. Housing Policy Debate, 21, 215–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Immergluck, D., & Smith, G. (2006). The impact of single-family mortgage foreclosures on neighborhood crime. Housing Studies, 21, 851–866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kids Count Data Center. (n.d.). Children living in households with a high housing cost burden. Retrieved from http://datacenter.kidscount.org/data/Map/7244-children-in-households-that-spend-more-than-30-percent-of-their-income-on-housing#1/any/true/36/any/14288/
  29. Lerman, R. I., & Zhang, S. (2012). Coping with the Great Recession: Disparate impacts on economic wellbeing in poor neighborhoods. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/412728-Coping-with-the-Great-Recession.pdf Google Scholar
  30. Lerman, R. I., & Zhang, S. (2014). Do homeownership and rent subsidies protect individuals from material hardship? Evidence from the Great Recession. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/413005_Do-Homeownership-Protect-Individuals-from-Material-Hardship.pdf Google Scholar
  31. Leventhal, T., & Newman, S. (2010). Housing and child development. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1165–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lipman, B. J. (2003). America’s newest working families: Cost, crowding, and conditions for immigrants (New Century Housing Newsletter, Vol. 4, No. 3). Washington, DC. Center for Housing Policy. Retrieved from www.nhc.org/media/documents/ImmigrantpubJuly10.pdf
  33. Lofquist, D. A. (2012). Multigenerational households: 2009–2011 (American Community Survey Briefs 11-03). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/prod/2012pubs/acsbr11-03.pdf
  34. London, A. S., & Frazier, C. B. (2013). Crowded living conditions, health, and well-being. In K. B. Fitzpatrick (Ed.), Poverty in America: A crisis among America’s most vulnerable. Volume 2: The importance of place in determining their future (pp. 139–160). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  35. Lopoo, L. M. (2005). Maternal employment and teenage childbearing: Evidence from the PSID. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24, 23–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McConnell, E. D. (2015). Restricted movement: Nativity, citizenship, legal status, and the residential crowding of Latinos in Los Angeles. Social Problems, 62, 141–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. (1994). Growing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Myers, D., Baer, W. C., & Choi, S.-Y. (1996). The changing problem of overcrowded housing. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62, 66–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newman, S. J., & Holupka, C. S. (2014a). Housing affordability and investments in children. Journal of Housing Economics, 24, 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Newman, S. J., & Holupka, C. S. (2014b). Housing affordability and child well-being. Housing Policy Debate, 25, 116–151. doi: 10.1080/10511482.2014.899261
  41. Newport, F. (2013). American dream of owning home lives on, even for young. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/161975/american-dream-owning-home-lives-even-young.aspx
  42. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. (2004). The impact of overcrowding on health & education: A review of evidence and literature. London, UK: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.Google Scholar
  43. O’Rand, A. M. (1996). The precious and the precocious: Understanding cumulative disadvantage and cumulative advantage over the life course. Gerontologist, 36, 230–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. O’Rand, A. M. (2002). Cumulative advantage theory in life course research. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 22, 14–30.Google Scholar
  45. Regoeczi, W. C. (2002). The impact of density: The importance of non-linearity and selection on flight and fight responses. Social Forces, 81, 505–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Regoeczi, W. C. (2003). When context matters: A multilevel analysis of household and neighbourhood crowding on aggression and withdrawal. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Regoeczi, W. C. (2008). Crowding in context: An examination of differential responses of men and women to high-density living environments. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49, 254–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rosenbaum, E., & Friedman, S. (2004). Generational patterns in home ownership and housing quality among racial/ethnic groups in New York City, 1999. International Migration Review, 38, 1492–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schuetz, J., Been, V., & Ellen, I. G. (2008). Neighborhood effects of concentrated mortgage foreclosures. Journal of Housing Economics, 17, 306–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shaefer, H. L., & Edin, K. (2013). Rising extreme poverty in the United States and the response of federal means-tested transfers. Social Service Review, 87, 250–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Solari, C. D., & Mare, R. D. (2012). Housing crowding effects on children’s well-being. Social Science Research, 41, 464–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Poverty thresholds 2009. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/threshld/thresh09.html
  53. Wells, N. M., & Harris, J. D. (2007). Housing quality, psychological distress, and the mediating role of social withdrawal: A longitudinal study of low-income women. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 69–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Withers, S. D. (2011). Demographic polarization of housing affordability in six major United States metropolitan areas. Urban Geography, 18, 296–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Administration and International Affairs, and Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public AffairsSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology, Aging Studies Institute, and Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public AffairsSyracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations