Demography

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 1477–1498 | Cite as

Housing Tenure and Residential Segregation in Metropolitan America

Article

Abstract

Homeownership, a symbol of the American dream, is one of the primary ways through which families accumulate wealth, particularly for blacks and Hispanics. Surprisingly, no study has explicitly documented the segregation of minority owners and renters from whites. Using data from Census 2000, this study aims to fill this gap. Analyses here reveal that the segregation of black renters relative to whites is significantly lower than the segregation of black owners from whites, controlling for relevant socioeconomic and demographic factors, contrary to the notion that homeownership represents an endpoint in the residential assimilation process. The patterns for Hispanics and Asians conform more to expectations under the spatial assimilation model. The findings here suggest that race and ethnicity continue to be as important in shaping residential segregation as socioeconomic status, and raise concerns about the benefits of homeownership, particularly for blacks.

Keywords

Residential segregation Housing tenure Race Ethnicity Socioeconomic status 

References

  1. Adelman, R. M. (2005). The roles of race, class, and residential preferences in the neighborhood’s racial composition of middle-class blacks and whites. Social Science Quarterly, 86, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1991). Variation on two themes: Racial and ethnic patterns in attainment of suburban residence. Demography, 28, 431–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1992). Assimilation and stratification in the homeownership patterns of racial and ethnic groups. International Migration Review, 26, 1314–1341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1993). Minority proximity to whites in suburbs: An individual-level analysis of segregation. The American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1388–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery, R. B., Brevoort, K. P., & Canner, G. B. (2006). High-priced home lending and the 2005 HMDA data. Federal Reserve Bulletin, September, 123–166.Google Scholar
  6. Bobo, L., & Zubrinsky, C. (1996). Attitudes towards residential integration: Perceived status differences, mere in-group preferences, or racial prejudice? Social Forces, 74, 883–909.Google Scholar
  7. Calem, P. S., Hershaff, J. E., & Wachter, S. M. (2004). Neighborhood patterns of subprime lending: Evidence from disparate cities. Housing Policy Debate, 15, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charles, C. (2003). Dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, W. A. V. (2007). Race, class, and place: Evaluating mobility outcomes for African Americans. Urban Affairs Review, 42, 295–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, W. A. V., & Blue, S. A. (2004). Race, class, and segregation patterns in U.S. immigrant gateway cities. Urban Affairs Review, 39, 667–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Conley, D. (1999). Being black, living in the red: Race, wealth, and social policy in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  12. Denton, N. A. (2001). Housing as a means of asset accumulation: A good strategy for the poor? In R. M. Shapiro & E. Willf (Eds.), Assets for the poor: The benefits of spreading asset ownership (pp. 232–268). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  13. Denton, N. A., & Massey, D. S. (1988). Residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians by socioeconomic status and generation. Social Science Quarterly, 69, 797–817.Google Scholar
  14. Farley, R., & Frey, W. H. (1994). Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: Small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, 59, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farley, R., Steeh, C., Krysan, M., Jackson, T., & Reeves, K. (1994). Stereotypes and segregation: Neighborhoods in the Detroit area. The American Journal of Sociology, 100, 750–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fischer, M. J. (2003). The relative importance of income and race in determining residential outcomes in U.S. urban areas, 1970–2000. Urban Affairs Review, 38, 669–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fischer, M. J., & Lowe, T. (2011, March–April). Examining the impact of the housing boom on neighborhood access for African Americans. Paper presented at the 2011 annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. Flippen, C. A. (2001). Racial and ethnic inequality in homeownership and housing equity. The Sociological Quarterly, 42, 121–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Freeman, L. (2000). Minority housing segregation: A test of three perspectives. The Journal of Urban Affairs, 22, 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gottschalck, A. O. (2008). Net worth and the assets of households: 2002 (Current Population Reports P70-115). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  21. Holloway, S. R., Ellis, M., Wright, R., & Hudson, M. (2005). Partnering “out” and fitting in: Residential segregation and the neighborhood contexts of mixed-race households. Population, Space, and Place, 11, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Iceland, J., Sharpe, C., & Steinmetz, E. (2005). Class differences in African American residential patterns in US metropolitan areas: 1990–2000. Social Science Research, 34, 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iceland, J., Weinberg, D. H., & Steinmetz, E. (2002). Racial and ethnic residential segregation in the United States: 1980–2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, Series CENSR-3). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  24. Iceland, J., & Wilkes, R. (2006). Does socioeconomic status matter? Race, class, and residential segregation. Social Problems, 53, 248–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kocchar, R., Fry, R., & Taylor, P. (2011). Wealth gaps rise to record highs between whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center.Google Scholar
  26. Liang, K., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73, 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Logan, J. R., & Alba, R. D. (1993). Locational returns to human capital: Minority access to suburban community resources. Demography, 30, 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Logan, J. R., & Molotch, H. (1987). Urban fortunes. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  29. Logan, J. R., Stults, B., & Farley, R. (2004). Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: Two decades of change. Demography, 41, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Massey, D. S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  31. Massey, D. S., Condran, G. A., & Denton, N. A. (1987). The effect of residential segregation on black social and economic well-being. Social Forces, 66, 29–56.Google Scholar
  32. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Massey, D. S., & Fischer, M. J. (1999). Does rising income bring integration? New results for blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 1990. Social Science Research, 28, 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oliver, M. L., & Shapiro, T. M. (1995). Black wealth/white wealth: A new perspective on racial inequality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Qian, Z., & Lichter, D. T. (2007). Social boundaries and marital assimilation: Interpreting trends in racial and ethnic intermarriage. American Sociological Review, 72, 68–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ross, S., & Turner, M. A. (2005). Housing discrimination in metropolitan America: Explaining changes between 1989 and 2000. Social Problems, 52, 152–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. St. John, C., & Clymer, R. (2000). Racial residential segregation by level of socioeconomic status. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 701–715.Google Scholar
  38. Taeuber, K., & Taeuber, A. (1965). Negroes in cities: Residential segregation and neighborhood change. Chicago, IL: Aldine.Google Scholar
  39. U.S. Census Bureau. (2002). American factfinder detailed tables. Tables P17, P17B, P17D, P17H, P17I. Average household size—All households, black or African American alone, Asian alone, Hispanic or Latino, and white alone, not Hispanic or Latino, respectively. Census 2000 data from Summary File 1. Retrieved from http://factfinder.census.gov
  40. Wilkes, R., & Iceland, J. (2004). Hypersegregation in the twenty-first century. Demography, 41, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams, R., Nesiba, R., & McConnell, E. D. (2005). The changing face of inequality in home mortgage lending. Social Problems, 52, 181–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Woldoff, R. A. (2008). Wealth, human capital, and family across racial/ethnic groups: Integrating models of wealth and locational attainment. Urban Studies, 45, 527–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yinger, J. (1995). Closed doors, opportunities lost: The continuing costs of housing discrimination. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity at Albany, SUNYAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Center for Social and Demographic AnalysisUniversity at Albany, SUNYAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations