Demography

, Volume 50, Issue 5, pp 1873–1896 | Cite as

Residential Integration on the New Frontier: Immigrant Segregation in Established and New Destinations

Article

Abstract

This article explores patterns and determinants of immigrant segregation for 10 immigrant groups in established, new, and minor destination areas. Using a group-specific typology of metropolitan destinations, this study finds that without controls for immigrant-group and metropolitan-level characteristics, immigrants in new destinations are more segregated and immigrants in minor destinations considerably more segregated than their counterparts in established destinations. Neither controls for immigrant-group acculturation or socioeconomic status nor those for demographic, housing, and economic features of metropolitan areas can fully account for the heightened levels of segregation observed in new and minor destinations. Overall, the results offer support for arguments that a diverse set of immigrant groups face challenges to residential incorporation in the new areas of settlement.

Keywords

Segregation Immigration New Destinations 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This article acknowledges support from the Penn State University Alumni Association and the Population Research Institute at Penn State, which receives core funding from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (Grant R24-HD041025). I am thankful to Editor Tolnay and three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments, as well as to Gordon De Jong, Glenn Firebaugh, Anastasia Gorodzeisky, Deb Graefe, John Iceland, Barry Lee, and Audrey Singer for comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.

Supplementary material

13524_2012_177_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1016 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 1015 kb)

References

  1. Alba, R., Denton, N., Hernandez, D., Drisha, I., McKenzie, B., & Napierala, J. (2010). Nowhere near the same: The neighborhoods of Latino children. In N. Landale, S. McHale, & A. Booth (Eds.), Growing up Hispanic: Health and development of children of immigrants (pp. 3–48). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  2. Bartel, A. P. (1989). Where do U.S. immigrants live? Journal of Labor Economics, 7, 371–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Capps, R., Rosenblum, M. R., Rodriguez, C., & Chisti, M. (2011). Delegation and divergence: A study of 287(g) state and local immigration enforcement. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Charles, C. Z. (2000). Neighborhood racial-composition preferences: Evidence from a multi-ethnic metropolis. Social Problems, 47, 379–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charles, C. Z. (2003). The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charles, C. Z. (2006). Won’t you be my neighbor? Race, class, and residence in Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  7. Cortina, R., & Gendreau, M. (Eds.). (2003). Immigrants and schooling: Mexicans in New York. New York: Center for Migration Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Crowder, K., Hall, M., & Tolnay, S. (2011). Neighborhood immigration and native out-mobility. American Sociological Review, 76, 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cutler, D., Glaeser, E. L., & Vigdor, J. (2008). Is the melting pot still hot? Explaining resurgence of immigrant segregation. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 478–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ellen, I. G. (2000). Sharing America’s neighborhoods: The prospects for stable, racial integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ellis, M., & Goodwin-White, J. (2006). 1.5 generation internal migration in the U.S.: Dispersion from states of immigration? International Migration Review, 40, 899–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Esbenshade, J. (2007). Division and dislocation: Regulating immigration through local housing ordinances (Immigration Policy Center Special Report). Washington, DC: American Immigration Law Foundation.Google Scholar
  13. Espiritu, Y. L. (1993). Asian American panethnicity: Bridging institutions and identities. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Fang, D., & Brown, D. (1999). Geographic mobility of the foreign-born Chinese in large metropolises, 1985–1990. International Migration Review, 33, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farley, R., & Frey, W. H. (1994). Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: Small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, 59, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farley, R., Fielding, E. L., & Krysan, M. (1997). The residential preferences of blacks and whites: A four-metropolis analysis. Housing Policy Debate, 8, 763–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fennelly, K. (2008). Prejudice toward immigrants in the Midwest. In D. Massey (Ed.), New faces in new places: The changing geography of American immigration (pp. 115–178). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  18. Fischer, M. J., & Tienda, M. (2006). Redrawing spatial color lines: Hispanic metropolitan dispersal, segregation, and economic opportunity. In M. Tienda & F. Mitchell (Eds.), Hispanic and the future of America (pp. 100–138). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  19. Frey, W. H., & Liaw, K.-L. (2005). Migration within the United States: Role of race-ethnicity. Brookings-Wharton Papers of Urban Affairs, 2005, 207–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gurak, D. T., & Kritz, M. M. (2000). The interstate migration of U.S. immigrants: Individual and contextual determinants. Social Forces, 78, 1017–1033.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, M., Crowder, K. D., & Tolnay, S. (2010, April). Immigration and native residential mobility in established, new, and nongateway metropolitan destinations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  22. Hardwick, S. W., & Meacham, J. E. (2008). “Placing” the refugee diaspora in Portland, Oregon: Suburban expansion and densification in a re-emerging gateway. In A. Singer, S. Hardwick, & C. Brettell (Eds.), Twenty-first century gateways: Immigrant incorporation in suburban America (pp. 225–256). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hood, M. V., & Morris, I. L. (1997). ¿Amigo o enemigo? Context, attitudes, and Anglo public opinion toward immigration. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 309–323.Google Scholar
  24. Hopkins, D. J. (2010). Politicized places: Explaining where and when immigrants provoke local opposition. American Political Science Review, 104, 40–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hopkins, D. J. (2011). National debates, local responses: The origins of local concern about immigration in the U.K. and the U.S. British Journal of Political Science, 41, 499–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iceland, J. (2009). Where we live now: Immigration and race in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Iceland, J., & Nelson, K. A. (2008). Hispanic segregation in metropolitan America: Exploring the multiple forms of spatial assimilation. American Sociological Review, 73, 741–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Iceland, J., & Scopilliti, M. (2008). Immigrant residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1990–2000. Demography, 45, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Iceland, J., & Steinmetz, E. (2003). The effects of using census block groups instead of census tracts when examining residential housing patterns (Working paper). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.Google Scholar
  30. Itzigsohn, J. (2004). The formation of Latino and Latina panethnic identities. In N. Foner & G. M. Fredrickson (Eds.), Not just black and white: Historical and contemporary perspectives on immigration, race, and ethnicity in the United States (pp. 197–216). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Jargowsky, P. (1997). Poverty and place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  32. Jones-Correa, M. (1998). Between two nations: The political predicament of Latinos in New York City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Kandel, W., & Cromartie, J. (2004). New patterns of Hispanic settlement in rural America. (Rural Development Research Report 99). Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, USDA.Google Scholar
  34. Kibria, N. (1998). The contest meanings of “Asian American”: Racial dilemmas in the contemporary US. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 21, 939–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kim, A. H., & White, M. J. (2010). Panethnicity, ethnic diversity, and residential segregation. The American Journal of Sociology, 115, 1558–1596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim, K. C., & Kim, S. (2001). The ethnic roles of Korean immigrant churches in the United States. In H.-Y. Kwan, K. C. Kim, & R. S. Warner (Eds.), Korean Americans and their religions: Pilgrims and missionaries from a different shore (pp. 71–94). University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Kritz, M. M., & Nogle, J. M. (1994). Nativity concentration and internal migration among the foreign-born. Demography, 31, 509–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krysan, M. (2002). Whites who say they’d flee: Who are they, and why would they leave? Demography, 39, 675–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuk, K., & Lichter, D. T. (2011, April). New Asian destinations: A comparative study of traditional gateways and emerging immigrant destinations. Paper presented at the Population Association of America, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  40. Leach, M. A., & Bean, F. D. (2008). The structure and dynamics of Mexican migration to new destinations in the United States. In D. S. Massey (Ed.), New faces in new places: The changing geography of American immigration (pp. 51–74). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  41. Levitt, P. (2007). Dominican Republic. In M. C. Waters & R. Ueda (Eds.), The new Americans: A guide to immigration since 1965 (pp. 399–411). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ley, D. (2007). Countervailing immigration and domestic migration in gateway cities: Australian and Canadian variations on an American theme. Economic Geography, 83, 231–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li, W. (Ed.). (2006). From urban enclave to ethnic suburb: New Asian communities in Pacific Rim countries. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  44. Li, W. (2009). Ethnoburb: The new ethnic community in urban America. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  45. Lichter, D. T., & Johnson, K. (2006). Emerging rural settlement patterns and the geographic redistribution of America’s new immigrants. Rural Sociology, 70, 109–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lichter, D. T., & Johnson, K. (2009). Immigrant gateways and Hispanic migration to new destinations. International Migration Review, 43, 496–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lichter, D. T., Parisi, D., Taquino, M. C., & Grice, S. M. (2010). Residential segregation in new Hispanic destinations: Cities, suburbs, and rural communities compared. Social Science Research, 39, 215–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Logan, J. R., Stults, B., & Farley, R. (2004). Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: Two decades of change. Demography, 41, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Massey, D. S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  50. Massey, D. S. (Ed.). (2008). New faces in new places: The changing geography of American immigration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  51. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1989). Hypersegregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: Black and Hispanic segregation along five dimensions. Demography, 26, 373–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Masuoka, N. (2006). Together they become one: Examining the predictors of panethnic group consciousness among Asian Americans and Latinos. Social Science Quarterly, 87, 993–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McConnell, E. D. (2008). The U.S. destinations of contemporary Mexican immigrants. International Migration Review, 42, 767–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McDermott, M. (2011). Racial attitudes in city, neighborhoods, and situational contexts. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 634, 153–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Min, P. G. (1992). The structure and social functions of Korean immigrant churches in the United States. International Migration Review, 26, 1370–1394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nogle, J. M. (1997). Internal migration patterns for the U.S. foreign born. International Journal of Population Geography, 3, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Okamoto, D. G. (2003). Toward a theory of panethnicity: Explaining Asian American collective action. American Sociological Review, 68, 811–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Oliver, J. E., & Wong, J. (2003). Intergroup prejudice in multiethnic settings. American Journal of Political Science, 47, 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pais, J., South, S. J., & Crowder, K. (2009). White flight revisited: A multiethnic perspective on neighborhood out-migration. Population Research and Policy Review, 8, 321–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Park, J., & Iceland, J. (2011). Residential segregation in metropolitan established immigrant gateways and new destinations, 1990–2000. Social Science Research, 40, 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Price, M., Cheung, I., Friedman, S., & Singer, A. (2005). The world settles in: Washington, DC, as an immigrant gateway. Urban Geography, 26, 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Quillian, L. (1996). Group threat and regional change in attitudes toward African-Americans. The American Journal of Sociology, 102, 816–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ramakrishnan, K. S., & Lewis, P. (2005). Immigrants and local governance: The view from city hall. San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California.Google Scholar
  65. Reis, M. (2004). Theorizing diaspora: Perspectives on “classical” and “contemporary” diaspora. International Migration, 42, 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rocha, R. R., & Espino, R. (2009). Racial threat, residential segregation, and the policy attitudes of Anglos. Political Research Quarterly, 62, 415–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rosenbaum, E., & Friedman, S. (2007). The housing divide: How generations of immigrants fare in New York’s housing market. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Ross, S., & Yinger, J. (2002). The color of credit: Mortgage discrimination, research methodology, and fair-lending enforcement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  69. Singer, A. (2005). The rise of new immigrant gateways: Historical flows, recent settlement trends. In A. Berube, B. Katz, & R. E. Lang (Eds.), Redefining urban and suburban America: Evidence from Census 2000 (Vol. II, pp. 41–86). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  70. Singer, A. (2009). The new geography of United States immigration. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  71. Skop, E. (2012). The immigration and settlement of Asian Indians in Phoenix, Arizona 1965–2011: Ethnic pride vs. racial discrimination. New York: Edwin Mellen.Google Scholar
  72. Smith, R. C. (1996). Mexicans in New York City: Membership and incorporation of new immigrant group. In G. Haslip-Viera & S. L. Baver (Eds.), Latinos in New York: Communities in transition (pp. 57–103). South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  73. Smith, R. C. (2001). Mexicans: Social, educational, economic, and political problems and prospects in New York. In N. Foner (Ed.), New immigrants in New York (pp. 275–300). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Suro, R., & Singer, A. (2003). Changing patterns of Latino growth in metropolitan America. In B. Katz & R. E. Lang (Eds.), Redefining urban and suburban America (Vol. 1, pp. 181–210). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  75. Taylor, M. (1998). How white attitudes vary with the racial composition of local populations: Numbers count. American Sociological Review, 63, 512–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Teaford, J. C. (2007). The American suburb: The basics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  77. Timberlake, J. M., & Iceland, J. (2007). Change in racial and ethnic residential inequality in American cities, 1970–2000. City and Community, 6, 335–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Waters, M. C., & Ueda, R. (Eds.). (2007). The new Americans: A guide to immigration since 1965. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Wen, M., Lauderdale, D. S., & Kandula, N. R. (2009). Ethnic neighborhoods in multiethnic America, 1990–2000: Resurgent ethnicity in the ethnoburbs? Social Forces, 88, 425–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. White, M. J. (1987). American neighborhoods and residential differentiation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  81. White, M. J., & Glick, J. (2009). Achieving anew: How new immigrants do in American schools, jobs, and neighborhoods. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  82. Wright, R., & Ellis, M. (2000). Race, region, and territorial politics of immigrants in the U.S. International Journal of Population Geography, 6, 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yanow, D. (2003). Constructing race and ethnicity in America: Category-making in public policy and administration. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  84. Zelinsky, W., & Lee, B. A. (1998). Heterolocalism: An alternative model of the sociospatial behavior of immigrant ethnic communities. International Journal of Population Geography, 4, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhou, M. (1992). Chinatown: The socioeconomic potential of an urban enclave. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Zúñiga, V., & Hernández-León, R. (Eds.). (2005). New destinations: Mexican immigration in the United States. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Policy Analysis and ManagementCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations