Demography

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 1263–1292 | Cite as

Metropolitan Structure and Neighborhood Attainment: Exploring Intermetropolitan Variation in Racial Residential Segregation

Article

Abstract

Using data from the 1981, 1991, and 2001 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and several decennial censuses, we examine how characteristics of metropolitan areas are associated with black and white households’ neighborhood racial composition. Results from hierarchical linear models show that about 20% to 40% of the variation in the percentage of households’ tract population that is non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black exists across metropolitan areas. Over time, white households’ exposure to non-Hispanic white neighbors has declined, and their exposure to non-Hispanic black neighbors has increased; the reverse trends are observed for blacks. These trends cannot be attributed to changes in the ecological structure of metropolitan areas. Blacks have fewer white neighbors in large metropolitan areas containing sizable minority populations, and blacks have more white neighbors in metropolitan areas with high government employment. Whites have more black neighbors in metropolitan areas with high levels of government employment and ample new housing; whites have fewer black neighbors in metropolitan areas with a high level of municipal fragmentation. The association between metropolitan-area percentage black and tract percentage black is weaker among whites than among blacks, suggesting that whites are especially motivated to self-segregate in metropolitan areas with large black populations.

Keywords

Neighborhood Race Metropolitan area Segregation Stratification 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a grant to the authors from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD054502). The Center for Social and Demographic Analysis of the University at Albany provided technical and administrative support for this research through a grant from NICHD (R24 HD044943). We thank Eric Fong, Kenneth Hill, and several anonymous reviewers for helpful comments.

References

  1. Adelman, R. M. (2005). The roles of race, class, and residential preferences in the neighborhood’s racial composition middle-class blacks and whites. Social Science Quarterly, 86, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alba, R. D., & Logan, J. R. (1993). Minority proximity to whites in suburbs: An individual-level analysis of segregation. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1388–1427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alba, R. D., Logan, J. R., & Stults, B. J. (2000). How segregated are middle-class African Americans? Social Problems, 47, 543–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alba, R. D., Logan, J. R., Stults, B. J., Marzan, G., & Zhang, W. (1999). Immigrant groups in the suburbs: A reexamination of suburbanization and spatial assimilation. American Sociological Review, 64, 446–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayer, P., McMillan, R., & Rueben, K. S. (2004). What drives racial segregation? New evidence using census microdata. Journal of Urban Economics, 56, 514–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bischoff, K. (2008). School district fragmentation and racial residential segregation: How do boundaries matter? Urban Affairs Review, 44, 182–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blalock, H. (1967). Toward a theory of minority group relations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  8. Charles, C. Z. (2003). The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 167–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Charles, C. Z. (2006). Won’t you be my neighbor? Race, class, and residence in Los Angeles. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, W. A. V., & Blue, S. A. (2004). Race, class, and segregation patterns in U.S. immigrant gateway cities. Urban Affairs Review, 39, 667–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowder, K. D. (2000). The racial context of white mobility: An individual-level assessment of the white flight hypothesis. Social Science Research, 29, 223–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crowder, K. D., & South, S. J. (2005). Race, class, and changing patterns of migration between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1715–1763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crowder, K. D., & South, S. J. (2008). Spatial dynamics of white flight: The effects of local and extralocal racial conditions on neighborhood out-migration. American Sociological Review, 73, 792–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farley, R., & Frey, W. H. (1994). Changes in the segregation of whites from blacks during the 1980s: Small steps toward a more integrated society. American Sociological Review, 59, 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fischer, M. J. (2003). The relative importance of income and race in determining residential outcomes in U.S. urban areas. Urban Affairs Review, 38, 669–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fong, E., & Shibuya, K. (2005). Multiethnic cities in North America. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freeman, L. (2000). Minority housing segregation: A test of three perspectives. Journal of Urban Affairs, 22, 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frey, W. H., & Farley, R. (1996). Latino, Asian, and black segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: Are multiethnic metros different? Demography, 33, 35–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Galster, G. C. (1991). Housing discrimination and urban poverty of African-Americans. Journal of Housing Research, 2, 87–122.Google Scholar
  20. GeoLytics. (2008). CensusCD Neighborhood Change Database 1970–2000 Tract Data [Machine-readable database]. Retrieved from http://www.geolytics.com/USCensus,Neighborhood-Change-Database-1970-2000,Products.asp
  21. Hill, M. S. (1992). The Panel Study of Income Dynamics: A user’s guide. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Holloway, S., Ellis, M., Wright, R., & Hudson, M. (2005). Partnering “out” and fitting in: Residential segregation and the neighbourhood contexts of mixed-race households. Population and Space, 11, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iceland, J. (2004). Beyond black and white: Residential segregation in multiethnic America. Social Science Research, 33, 248–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iceland, J. (2009). Where we live now: Immigration and race in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Iceland, J., & Scopilitti, M. (2008). Immigrant residential segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1990–2000. Demography, 45, 79–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Iceland, J., Sharpe, C., & Steinmetz, E. (2005). Class differences in African American residential patterns in U.S. metropolitan areas. Social Science Research, 34, 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iceland, J., & Wilkes, R. (2006). Does socioeconomic status matter? Race, class, and residential segregation. Social Problems, 52, 248–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jargowsky, P. A. (1997). Poverty and place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  29. Krivo, L. J., & Kaufman, R. L. (1999). How low can it go? Declining black-white segregation in a multiethnic context. Demography, 36, 93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krysan, M. (2002). Whites who say they’d flee: Who are they, and why would they leave? Demography, 39, 675–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krysan, M., & Farley, R. (2002). The residential preferences of blacks: Do they explain persistent segregation? Social Forces, 80, 937–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Landale, N. S., & Guest, A. M. (1985). Constraints, satisfaction and residential mobility: Speare’s model reconsidered. Demography, 22, 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lieberson, S. (1980). A piece of the pie: Blacks and white immigrants since 1880. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  34. Logan, J. R., Alba, R. D., & Leung, S. Y. (1996). Minority access to white suburbs: A multiregional comparison. Social Forces, 74, 851–881.Google Scholar
  35. Logan, J. R., Stults, B. J., & Farley, R. (2004). Segregation of minorities in the metropolis: Two decades of change. Demography, 41, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Massey, D. S. (1985). Ethnic residential segregation: A theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociology and Social Research, 69, 315–350.Google Scholar
  37. Massey, D. S., Condran, G. A., & Denton, N. A. (1988). The effect of residential segregation on black social and economic well-being. Social Forces, 66, 29–56.Google Scholar
  38. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1987). Trends in the residential segregation of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians. American Sociological Review, 52, 802–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1989). Hypersegregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: Black and Hispanic segregation along five dimensions. Demography, 26, 373–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American Apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Massey, D. S., & Fischer, M. J. (1999). Does rising income bring integration? New results for blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in 1990. Social Science Research, 28, 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Massey, D. S., Gross, A. B., & Eggers, M. L. (1991). Segregation, concentration of poverty, and the life chances of individuals. Social Science Research, 20, 397–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Quillian, L., & Pager, D. (2001). Black neighbors, higher crime? The role of racial stereotypes in evaluations of neighborhood crime. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 717–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  45. Ross, S. L., & Turner, M. A. (2005). Housing discrimination in metropolitan America: Explaining changes between 1989 and 2000. Social Problems, 52, 152–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schuman, H., Steeh, C., & Bobo, L. (1997). Racial attitudes in America: Trends and interpretation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Scopilitti, M., & Iceland, J. (2008). Residential patterns of black immigrants and native-born blacks in the United States. Social Science Quarterly, 89, 547–572.Google Scholar
  48. South, S. J., & Crowder, K. D. (1997). Escaping distressed neighborhoods: Individual, community, and metropolitan influences. American Journal of Sociology, 102, 1040–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Speare, A., Jr., Goldstein, S., & Frey, W. H. (1975). Residential mobility, migration, and metropolitan change. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  50. St. John, C., & Clymer, R. (2000). Racial residential segregation by level of socioeconomic status. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 701–715.Google Scholar
  51. Timberlake, J. M., & Iceland, J. (2007). Change in racial and ethnic residential inequality in American cities, 1970–2000. City and Community, 6, 335–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. (1984). Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Table File 3C [Machine-readable database]. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].Google Scholar
  53. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. (1992). Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Table File 3C [Machine-readable database]. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].Google Scholar
  54. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. (2004). Census of Population and Housing, 2000: Summary File 3 [Machine-readable database]. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor].Google Scholar
  55. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau. (2008). Historical Finances of Individual Governments: Fiscal Years 1967 and 1970–2006. Retrieved from http://www2.census.gov/pub/outgoing/govs/special60
  56. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2009). State of the Cities Data Systems. Retrieved from http://socds.huduser.org
  57. White, M. J., & Glick, J. E. (1999). The impact of immigration on residential segregation. In F. D. Bean & S. Bell-Rose (Eds.), Immigration and opportunity: Race, ethnicity, and employment in the United States (pp. 345–372). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  58. White, M. J., & Sassler, S. (2000). Judging not only by color: Ethnicity, nativity, and neighborhood attainment. Social Science Quarterly, 81, 997–1013.Google Scholar
  59. Wilkes, R., & Iceland, J. (2004). Hypersegregation in the twenty-first century. Demography, 41, 23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wirth, L. (1938). Urbanism as a way of life. American Journal of Sociology, 44, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Woldoff, R. A. (2008). Wealth, human capital and family across racial/ethnic groups: Integrating models of wealth and locational attainment. Urban Studies, 45, 527–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wright, R., Ellis, M., & Parks, V. (2005). Re-placing whiteness in spatial assimilation research. City and Community, 4, 111–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yinger, J. (1995). Closed doors, opportunities lost: The continuing costs of housing discrimination. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Center for Social and Demographic AnalysisUniversity at Albany, State University of New YorkAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology and Center for Studies in Demography and EcologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations