Demography

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 1347–1375 | Cite as

Does More Schooling Reduce Hospitalization and Delay Mortality? New Evidence Based on Danish Twins

  • Jere R. Behrman
  • Hans-Peter Kohler
  • Vibeke Myrup Jensen
  • Dorthe Pedersen
  • Inge Petersen
  • Paul Bingley
  • Kaare Christensen
Article

Abstract

Schooling generally is positively associated with better health-related outcomes—for example, less hospitalization and later mortality—but these associations do not measure whether schooling causes better health-related outcomes. Schooling may in part be a proxy for unobserved endowments—including family background and genetics—that both are correlated with schooling and have direct causal effects on these outcomes. This study addresses the schooling-health-gradient issue with twins methodology, using rich data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to population-based registries to minimize random and systematic measurement error biases. We find strong, significantly negative associations between schooling and hospitalization and mortality, but generally no causal effects of schooling.

Keywords

Health-schooling gradients Schooling Mortality Hospitalization Twins 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study is part of a large collaborative project, involving the authors of this article and others, that is supported in part by NICHD Grants HD046144 (“Causal Effects of Schooling on Adult and Child Health”) and HD043417 (“Bio-Social Determinants of Fertility and Related Behaviors”). The authors thank participants at a session in which this article was presented at the 2006 annual meetings of the Population Association of America in Los Angeles, CA; three reviewers; the editor; and Mia Madsen for helpful comments on previous versions of the article.

References

  1. Adams, S. (2002). Educational attainment and health: Evidence from a sample of older adults. Education Economics, 10, 97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, P., Hurd, M. D., McFadden, D., Merrill, A., & Ribeiro, T. (2002). Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. Journal of Econometrics, 112, 3–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler, N., Boyce, T., Chesney, M. A., Cohen, S., Folkman, S., Kahn, R., & Syme, L. S. (1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin, V., Behrman, J. R., & Spector, T. D. (2010). Does more schooling improve health behaviours and health outcomes? Evidence from U.K. twins (Working paper). London, UK: Economics Department, Royal Holloway College, University of London.Google Scholar
  5. Amouyel, P., Richard, F., Cottel, D., Amant, C., Codron, V., & Helbecque, N. (1996). The deletion allele of the angiotensin i converting enzyme gene as a genetic susceptibility factor for cognitive impairment. Neuroscience Letters, 217, 203–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersen, T. F., Madsen, M., Joergensen, J., Mellemkjaer, L., & Olsen, J. H. (1999). The Danish National Hospital Register: A valuable source for modern health sciences. Danish Medical Bulletin, 46, 263–268.Google Scholar
  7. Andersen-Ranberg, K., Christensen, K., Jeune, B., Skytthe, A., Vasegaard, L., & Vaupel, J. W. (1999). Declining physical abilities with age: A cross-sectional study of older twins and centenarians in Denmark. Age and Aging, 28, 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Angrist, J. D., Imbens, G. W., & Rubin, D. B. (1996). Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91, 444–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angrist, J., & Krueger, A. (1991). Does compulsory school attendance affect schooling and earnings? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 979–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arendt, J. N. (2005). Does education cause better health? A panel data analysis using school reforms for identification. Economics of Education Review, 24, 149–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arkes, J. (2003). Does schooling improve adult health? (DRU-3051). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  12. Ashenfelter, O., & Krueger, A. (1994). Estimates of the economic return to schooling from a new sample of twins. American Economic Review, 84, 1157–1173.Google Scholar
  13. Ashenfelter, O., & Rouse, C. (1998). Income, schooling and ability: Evidence from a new sample of identical twins. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113, 153–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bartres-Faz, D., Junque, C., Clemente, I. C., Lopez-Alomar, A., Valveny, N., Lopez-Guillen, A., . . . Moral, P. (2000). Angiotensin I converting enzyme polymorphism in humans with age-associated memory impairment: Relationship with cognitive performance. Neuroscience Letters, 290, 177–180.Google Scholar
  15. Becker, G. S. (1991). A treatise on the family (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Becker, G. S., & Tomes, N. (1976). Child endowments and the quantity and quality of children. Journal of Political Economy, 84, S143–S162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Behrman, J. R., Hoddinott, J. Maluccio, J. A., Soler-Hampejsek, E., Behrman, E., Martorell, R., . . . Stein, A. D. (2008). What determines adult skills? Impacts of pre-schooling, schooling and post-schooling experiences in Guatemala (IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 826). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  18. Behrman, J. R., Hrubec, Z., Taubman, P., & Wales, T. J. (1980). Socioeconomic success: A study of the effects of genetic endowments, family environment and schooling. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  19. Behrman, J. R., Li, H., Suen, W., Yang, Z., & Zhang, J. (2006). Does more schooling improve health behaviors and health outcomes? Evidence from Chinese twins (Working paper). Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  20. Behrman, J. R., Pollak, R. A., & Taubman, P. (1982). Parental preferences and provision for progeny. Journal of Political Economy, 90, 52–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Behrman, J. R., Pollak, R. A., & Taubman, P. (1995). The wealth model: Efficiency in education and equity in the family. In J. R. Behrman, R. A. Pollak, & P. Taubman (Eds.), From parent to child: Intrahousehold allocations and intergenerational relations in the United States (pp. 113–138). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  22. Behrman, J. R., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1999). “Ability” biases in schooling returns and twins: A test and new estimates. Economics of Education Review, 18, 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Behrman, J. R., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2002). Does increasing women’s schooling raise the schooling of the next generation? American Economic Review, 92, 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Behrman, J. R., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2004). Returns to birthweight. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86, 586–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Behrman, J. R., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (2005). Does increasing women’s schooling raise the schooling of the next generation?—Reply. American Economic Review, 95, 1745–1751.Google Scholar
  26. Behrman, J. R., Rosenzweig, M. R., & Taubman, P. (1994). Endowments and the allocation of schooling in the family and in the marriage market: The twins experiment. Journal of Political Economy, 102, 1131–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Behrman, J. R., Rosenzweig, M. R., & Taubman, P. (1996). College choice and wages: Estimates using data on female twins. Review of Economics and Statistics, 73, 672–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Behrman, J. R., & Taubman, P. (1976). Intergenerational transmission of income and wealth. American Economic Review, 66, 436–440.Google Scholar
  29. Behrman, J. R., & Wolfe, B. L. (1989). Does more schooling make women better nourished and healthier? Adult sibling random and fixed effects estimates for Nicaragua. Journal of Human Resources, 24, 644–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Berger, M. C., & Leigh, J. P. (1989). Education, self-selection and health. Journal of Human Resources, 24, 433–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bingley, P., Christensen, K., & Jensen, V. M. (2009). Parental schooling and child development: Learning from twin parents (The Danish National Centre for Social Research Working Paper 07–2009). Denmark: University of Southern Denmark, and Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University.Google Scholar
  32. Bishop, J. (1976). Reporting errors and the true return to schooling. Unpublished manuscript, Economics Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison.Google Scholar
  33. Bonjour, D., Cherkas, L., Haskel, J., Hawkes, D., & Spector, T. (2003). Returns to education: Evidence from UK twins. American Economic Review, 93, 1799–1812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bound, J., & Solon, G. (1999). Double trouble: On the value of twins-based estimation of the return to schooling. Economics of Education Review, 18, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., & Maritato, N. (1997). Poor families, poor outcomes: The well-being of children and youth. In G. J. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 1–17). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  36. Case, A., Fertig, A., & Paxson, C. (2002a). The development of the gradient: Earnings and health dynamics. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Health and Wellbeing, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Retrieved from http://www.wws.princeton.edu
  37. Case, A., Lubotsky, D., & Paxson, C. (2002b). Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. American Economic Review, 92, 1308–1334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen, W., Srinivasan, S. R., Elkasabany, A., Ellsworth, D. L., Boerwinkle, E., & Berenson, G. S. (2001). Influence of lipoprotein lipase serine 447 stop polymorphism on tracking of triglycerides and hdl cholesterol from childhood to adulthood and familial risk of coronary artery disease: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Atherosclerosis, 159, 367–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chou, S.-Y., Liu, J.-T., Grossman, M., & Joyce, T. (2007). Parental education and child health: Evidence from a natural experiment in Taiwan (NBER Working Paper No. 1346). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  40. Christensen, K., Gaist, D., Jeune, B., & Vaupel, J. W. (1998). A tooth per child? Lancet, 352, 204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Christensen, K., Holm, N. V., McGue, M., Corder, L., & Vaupel, J. W. (1999). A Danish population-based twin study on general health in the elderly. Journal of Aging and Health, 11, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Christensen, K., Holm, N. V., & Vaupel, J. W. (1996). Alzheimer’s disease in twins. Lancet, 347, 976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Christensen, K., Kristiansen, M., Hagen-Larsen, H., Skytthe, A., Bathum, L., Jeune, B., . . . Orstavik, K. H. (2000a). X-linked genetic factors regulate hematopoietic stem-cell kinetics in females. Blood, 95, 2449–2451.Google Scholar
  44. Christensen, K., & McGue, M. (2008). Academic achievement in twins: Yet another twin-singleton difference is diminishing. British Medical Journal, 337, 245–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Christensen, K., McGue, M., Yashin, A., Iachine, I., Holm, N., & Vaupel, J. (2000b). Genetic and environmental influences on functional abilities in Danish twins aged 75 years and older. Journals of Gerontology Series A–Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55, M446–M452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Christensen, K., Vaupel, J. W., Holm, N. V., & Yashin, A. I. (1995). Mortality among twins after age 6: Fetal origins hypothesis versus twin method. British Medical Journal, 310, 432–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Clee, S. M., Loubser, O., Collins, J., Kastelein, J. J., & Hayden, M. R. (2001). The LPL S447X cSNP is associated with decreased blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Clinical Genetics, 60, 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Conley, D., Strully, K., & Bennett, N. (2006). Twin differences in birth weight: The effects of genotype and parental environment on neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. Economics and Human Biology, 4, 151–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cutler, D. M., Deaton, A. S., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2006). The determinants of mortality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(3), 97–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cutler, D. M., & Lleras-Muney, A. (2008). Education and health: Evaluating theories and evidence. In J. House, R. Schoeni, G. Kaplan, & H. Pollack (Eds.), The effects of social and economic policy on health (pp. 29–60). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  51. Deaton, A. S. (2001a). The policy implications of the gradient. Unpublished manuscript, Economics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  52. Deaton, A. S. (2001b). Relative deprivation, inequality, and mortality (NBER Working Paper No. 8099). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  53. Deaton, A. S., & Paxson, C. H. (1998). Aging and inequality in income and health. American Economic Review, 88, 248–253.Google Scholar
  54. Deaton, A. S., & Paxson, C. H. (1999). Mortality, education, income, and inequality among American cohorts (NBER Working Paper No. 7140). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  55. Deaton, A. S., & Paxson, C. H. (2001). Mortality, income, and income inequality over time in Britain and the United States. Unpublished manuscript, Center for Health and Wellbeing, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  56. de Walque, D. (2007). Does education affect smoking behavior? Evidence using the Vietnam draft as an instrument for college education. Journal of Health Economics, 26, 877–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elo, I. T., & Preston, S. H. (1992). Effects of early-life conditions on adult mortality: A review. Population Index, 58, 186–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Elo, I. T., & Preston, S. H. (1996). Educational differentials in mortality: United States, 1979–85. Social Science & Medicine, 42, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Fletcher, J. M., & Lehrer, S. F. (2009). Using genetic lotteries within families to examine the causal impact of poor health on academic achievement (NBER Working Paper No. 15148). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  60. Forsberg, L., Lyrenas, L., de Faire, U., & Morgenstern, R. (2002). A common functional C-T substitution polymorphism in the promoter region of the human catalase gene influences transcription factor binding, reporter gene transcription and is correlated to blood catalase levels. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 30, 500–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Frosst, P., Blom, H. J., Milos, R., Goyette, P., Sheppard, C. A., Matthews, R. G., . . . Rozen, R. (1995). A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: A common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Nature Genetics, 10, 111–113.Google Scholar
  62. Fujiwara, T., & Kawachi, I. (2009). Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USA. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 1310–1322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gaist, D., Bathum, L., Skytthe, A., Jensen, T. K., McGue, M., Vaupel, J. W., & Christensen, K. (2000). Strength and anthropometric measures in identical and fraternal twins: No evidence of masculinization of females with male co-twins. Epidemiology, 11, 340–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Griliches, Z. (1979). Sibling models and data in economics: Beginnings of a survey. Journal of Political Economy, 87, S37–S64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grimard, F., & Parent, D. (2007). Education and smoking: Were Vietnam draft avoiders also more likely to avoid smoking? Journal of Health Economics, 26, 896–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Grossman, M. (2006). Education and non-market outcomes. In E. Hanushek & F. Welch (Eds.), Handbook of the economics of education (Vol. 1, pp. 577–633). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: North-Holland, Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  67. Hall, J. G. (2003). Twinning. Lancet, 362, 735–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hauge, M. (1981). The Danish twin register. In S. A. Mednich, A. E. Baert, & B. P. Bauchmann (Eds.) Prospective longitudinal research: An empirical basis for the primary prevention of psychological disorders (pp. 217–221). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Humbert, R., Adler, D. A., Disteche, C. M., Hassett, C., Omiecinski, C., & Furlong, C. E. (1993). The molecular basis of the human serum paraoxonase activity polymorphism. Nature Genetics, 3, 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jenny, N. S., Tracy, R. P., Ogg, M. S., Luong le A., Kuller, H., Arnold, A. M., . . . Humphries, S. E. (2002). In the elderly, interleukin-6 plasma levels and the 174G > C polymorphism are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 22, 2066–2071.Google Scholar
  71. Jiang, Z., Akey, J. M., Shi, J., Xiong, M., Wang, Y., Shen, Y., . . . Jin, L. (2001). A polymorphism in the promoter region of catalase is associated with blood pressure levels. Human Genetics, 109, 95–98.Google Scholar
  72. Kawachi, I., Kennedy, B. P., & Wilkinson, R. G. (1999). The society and population health reader: Volume 1: Income inequality and health. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  73. Kelly, P. J., Rosand, J., Kistler, J. P., Shih, V. E., Silveira, S., Plomaritoglou, A., & Furie, K. L. (2002). Homocysteine, MTHFR 677C-T polymorphism, and risk of ischemic stroke: Results of a meta-analysis. Neurology, 59, 529–536.Google Scholar
  74. Kenkel, D., Lillard, D., & Mathios, A. (2006). The roles of high school completion and GED receipt in smoking and obesity. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 635–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kluijtmans, L. A. J., van den Heuvel, L. P. W. J., Boers, G. H. J., Frosst, P., Stevens, E. M. B., van Oost, B. A., . . . Blom, H. J. (1996). Molecular genetic analysis in mild hyperhomocysteinemia: A common mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene is a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Human Genetics, 58, 35–41.Google Scholar
  76. Kohler, H.-P., Behrman, J. R., & Schnittker, J. (2011). Social science methods for twins data: Integrating causality, endowments, and heritability. Biodemography and Social Biology, 57, 88–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kohler, H.-P., Behrman, J. R., & Skytthe, A. (2005). Partner + children = happiness? An assessment of the effect of fertility and partnerships on subjective well-being in Danish twins. Population and Development Review, 31, 407–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kohler, H.-P., Knudsen, L., Skytthe, A., & Christensen, K. (2002). The fertility pattern of twins and the general population compared: Evidence from Danish cohorts 1945–64. Demographic Research, 6, 383–408. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2002.6.14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kohler, H.-P., & Kohler, I. (2002, May). The effect of marriage on mortality: Selection or protection? Evidence from Danish twins using fixed-effect survival models. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  80. Kohler, H.-P., & Rodgers, J. L. (1999). DF-like analyses of binary, ordered and censored variables using probit and Tobit approaches. Behavior Genetics, 29, 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kohler, H.-P., & Rodgers, J. L. (2000). DF-analyses of heritability with double-entry twin data: Asymptotic standard errors and efficient estimation. Behavior Genetics, 31, 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kohler, H.-P., Rodgers, J. L., & Christensen, K. (1999). Is fertility behavior in our genes: Findings from a Danish twin study. Population and Development Review, 25, 253–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kohler, H.-P., Rodgers, J. L., & Christensen, K. (2003). Between nurture and nature: The shifting determinants of female fertility in Danish twin cohorts 1870–1968. Social Biology, 49(1–2), 76–106.Google Scholar
  84. Kohler, H.-P., Skytthe, A., & Christensen, K. (2001). The age at first birth and completed fertility reconsidered: Findings from a sample of identical twins (Working Paper No. 2001–006). Rostock, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. Retrieved from http://www.demogr.mpg.de
  85. Kondo, S., Schutte, B. C., Richardson, R. J., Bjork, B. C., Knight, A. S., Watanabe, Y., . . . Murray, J. C. (2002). Mutations in IRF6 cause Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes. Nature Genetics, 32(2), 285–289.Google Scholar
  86. Kyvik, K. O., Christensen, K., Skytthe, A., Harvald, B., & Holm, N. V. (1996). The Danish Twin Register. Danish Medical Bulletin, 43, 465–470.Google Scholar
  87. Lleras-Muney, A. (2005). The relationship between education and adult mortality in the United States. Review of Economic Studies, 72, 189–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lubinsky, M. S., & Hall, J. G. (1991). Genomic imprinting, monozygous twinning, and X inactivation. Lancet, 337, 1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lundborg, P. (2008). The health returns to education: What can we learn from twins? (IZA Discussion Paper No. 3399). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor.Google Scholar
  90. Madsen, M., Andersen, A. M. N., Christensen, K., Andersen, P. K., & Osler, M. (2010). Does educational status impact adult mortality in Denmark? A twin approach. American Journal of Epidemiology, 72, 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Marmot, M. (1999). Epidemiology of socioeconomic status and health: Are determinants within countries the same as between countries? In N. E. Adler, M. Marmot, B. S. McEwen, & J. Steward (Eds.), Socioeconomic status and health in industrial nations (pp. 16–29). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  92. Mellor, J. M., & Milyo, J. (2002). Income inequality and health status in the United States: Evidence from the Current Population Survey. Journal of Human Resources, 37, 510–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller, P., Mulvey, C., & Martin, N. (1995). What do twins studies tell us about the economic returns to education? A comparison of U.S. and Australian findings. American Economic Review, 85, 586–599.Google Scholar
  94. Miller, P., Mulvey, C., & Martin, N. (1997). Family characteristics and the returns to schooling: Evidence on gender differences from a sample of Australian twins. Economica, 64, 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Morita, H., Taguchi, J., Kurihara, H., Kitaoka, M., Kaneda, H., Kurihara, Y., . . . Yazaki, Y. (1997). Genetic polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Circulation, 95, 2032–2036.Google Scholar
  96. Myllykangas, L., Polvikoski, T., Sulkava, R., Notkola, I. L., Rastas, S., Verkkoniemi, A., . . . Haltia, M. (2001). Association of lipoprotein lipase Ser447Ter polymorphism with brain infarction: A population-based neuropathological study. Annals of Medicine, 33, 486–492.Google Scholar
  97. Oreopoulos, P. (2006). Estimating average and local average treatment effects of education when compulsory school laws really matter. American Economic Review, 96, 152–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Osler, M., McGue, M., & Christensen, K. (2007). Socioeconomic position and twins’ health: A life-course analysis of 1266 pairs of middle-aged Danish twins. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pericak-Vance, M. A., & Haines, J. L. (1995). Genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer disease. Trends in Genetics, 11, 504–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Preston, S. H. (1975). The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. Population Studies, 29, 231–248.Google Scholar
  101. Preston, S. H., & Elo, I. T. (1995). Are educational differentials in adult mortality increasing in the United States? Journal of Aging and Health, 7, 476–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rodgers, J. L., Kohler, H.-P., McGue, M., Behrman, J. R., Petersen, I., Bingley, P., & Christensen, K. (2008). Education and cognitive ability as direct, mediated, or spurious influences on female age at first birth: Behavior genetic models fit to Danish twin data. American Journal of Sociology, 114, S202–S232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roses, A. D. (1998). Alzheimer diseases: A model of gene mutations and susceptibility polymorphisms for complex psychiatric diseases. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 81, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (1999). Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. Demography, 36, 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sawano, M., Watanabe, Y., Ohmura, H., Shimada, K., Daida, H., Mokuno, H., & Yamaguchi, H. (2001). Potentially protective effects of the Ser447-Ter mutation of the lipoprotein lipase gene against the development of coronary artery disease in Japanese subjects via a beneficial lipid profile. Japanese Circulation Journal, 65, 310–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schnittker, J., & Behrman, J. R. (2010). The value of twins for sociological research (Working paper). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  107. Skytthe, A., Holm, N. V., Vaupel, J. W., & Christensen, K. (1998). Establishing a population-based register of middle-aged twins in Denmark. Twin Research, 1, 110.Google Scholar
  108. Skytthe, A., Kyvik, K., Holm, N. V., Vaupel, J. W., & Christensen, K. (2002). The Danish Twin Registry: 127 birth cohorts of Twins. Twin Research, 5, 352–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, J. P. (1999). Healthy bodies and thick wallets: The dual relation between health and economic status. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13, 145–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Spasojevic, J. (2003). Effects of education on adult health in Sweden: Results from a natural experiment (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). City University of New York Graduate Center.Google Scholar
  111. Strauss, J., & Thomas, D. (1998). Health, nutrition and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 36, 766–817.Google Scholar
  112. Voetsch, B., Benke, K. S., Damasceno, B. P., Siqueira, L. H., & Loscalzo, J. (2002). Paraoxonase 192 Gln–>Arg polymorphism: An independent risk factor for nonfatal arterial ischemic stroke among young adults. Stroke, 33, 1459–1464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilkinson, R. G. (1992). Income distribution and life expectancy. British Medical Journal, 304, 165–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wilkinson, R. G. (1996). Unhealthy societies. The affliction of inequality. London, UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wilkinson, R. G. (2000). Mind the gap: Hierarchies, health, and human evolution. London, UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Population Association of America 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jere R. Behrman
    • 1
  • Hans-Peter Kohler
    • 2
  • Vibeke Myrup Jensen
    • 3
  • Dorthe Pedersen
    • 4
  • Inge Petersen
    • 4
  • Paul Bingley
    • 3
  • Kaare Christensen
    • 4
  1. 1.Economics and SociologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Danish National Centre for Social ResearchCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.The Danish Twin Registry and The Danish Aging Research CenterUniversity of Southern DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations