Asian Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 5, Issue 1–2, pp 1–18 | Cite as

Board gender diversity and firm performance: evidence from India

  • Neeti Khetarpal SananEmail author


This study examines the impact of board gender diversity on financial performance of listed Indian firms in a dynamic modelling framework. Using a firm-year unit of analysis, a sample of 148 publicly listed firms across multiple industries have been studied over a period of five financial years namely FY 2008–2009 to FY 2012–2013. Employing panel data analysis, percentage of women directors is taken as the independent variable and firm performance measured by return on assets (ROA) and Tobin’s Q as the dependent variables. The primary results of the study using ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed effects (FE) estimation models point towards a positive and significant relationship between percentage of independent women directors (IWD) and firm performance. However, results are reversed when the theoretically superior Arellano Bond estimation is used. Findings of the study indicate that the number of companies with no IWDs is reducing across the 5 years of study. This may be due to external pressure created by stakeholders. Also, the number of companies with one IWD is increasing over the period of the study, while the number of companies with two or three or more directors is more or less the same. The number of two or three IWD companies remaining the same could arguably be due to lack of availability of independent directors who are women.


Corporate boards Gender diversity Indian firms Performance 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IIM UdaipurUdaipurIndia

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