Association of adiponectin gene polymorphisms and their haplotypes with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic traits in an Iranian population
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted protein that contributes to glucose homeostasis. Contradictory reports are available on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigate the association of adiponectin gene SNPs (+45T/G and +276G/T) with serum adiponectin, insulin resistance, lipid profile, and T2D risk in an Iranian population.
The +45T/G and +276G/T SNPs were genotyped in 211 non-familial T2D patients and 202 non-diabetic subjects by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and TaqMan probe, respectively.
T2D was associated with a decrease in serum adiponectin level. The G allele and the GG and TG genotypes of +45T/G SNP were more abundant than the T allele and the TT genotype in T2D patients compared with controls (p < 0.001). The risk of T2D in individuals with the GG and TG genotypes of +45T/G SNP was 4 and 2 times more than that with the TT genotype, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequencies of allele and genotype of +276G/T SNP between the control and T2D groups. The presence of +45G/+276G haplotype was associated with an increased risk of T2D (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.34–3.03, p = 0.04).
Therefore, our results showed that +45T/G SNP is associated with the risk of T2D higher than +276G/T SNP in the studied population.
KeywordsAdiponectin Type 2 diabetes mellitus Gene polymorphism Iran
We are most grateful to Vice Chancellor for Research Centers, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, for providing research facilities.
This work was supported by a grant (No. 271) from Semnan University of Medical Sciences and Golestan University of Medical Sciences.
Compliance with ethical standards
Human and animal rights
The study has been approved by the appropriate local ethics committee at the Semnan University of Medical Sciences and has been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Semnan University of Medical Sciences research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Golozar A, Khalili D, Etemadi A, Poustchi H, Fazeltabar A, Hosseini F, et al. White rice intake and incidence of type-2 diabetes: analysis of two prospective cohort studies from Iran. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):133. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3999-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 5.Ma RC, Hu C, Tam CH, Zhang R, Kwan P, Leung TF, et al. Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population identifies a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes at 7q32 near PAX4. Diabetologia. 2013;56(6):1291–305. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-013-2874-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 7.Morris AP, Voight BF, Teslovich TM, Ferreira T, Segre AV, Steinthorsdottir V, et al. Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2012;44(9):981–90. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2383.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 12.Tu Y, Yu Q, Fan G, Yang P, Lai Q, Yang F, et al. Assessment of type 2 diabetes risk conferred by SNPs rs2241766 and rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene, a case/control study combined with meta-analyses. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;396(1–2):1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2014.08.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Kacso IM, Farcas MF, Pop IV, Bondor CI, Potra AR, Moldovan D, et al. 276G>T polymorphism of the ADIPOQ gene influences plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetes patients but is not predictive for presence of type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian cohort from Romania. Maedica. 2012;7(4):271–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Mohammadzadeh G, Zarghami N. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the adiponectin gene, serum adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iranian obese individuals. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(7):764–71. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365510903137237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00280883.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 21.Sabouri S, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Moohebati M, Hassani M, Kassaeian J, Tatari F, et al. Association between 45T/G polymorphism of adiponectin gene and coronary artery disease in an Iranian population. TheScientificWorldJournal. 2011;11:93–101. https://doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2011.3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.Han LY, Wu QH, Jiao ML, Hao YH, Liang LB, Gao LJ, et al. Associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (+45T>G, +276G>T, -11377C>G, −11391G>A) of adiponectin gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2011;54(9):2303–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-011-2202-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Vasseur F, Helbecque N, Dina C, Lobbens S, Delannoy V, Gaget S, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes in the both proximal promoter and exon 3 of the APM1 gene modulate adipocyte-secreted adiponectin hormone levels and contribute to the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes in French Caucasians. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11(21):2607–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar