Advertisement

Biochemical and anthropometric changes during Ramadan among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

  • Somaye Gholami
  • Narjes Hazar
  • Shima Shafiei
  • Mozhgan Hemmati
  • Masoud RahmanianEmail author
Original Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, our aim was to assess the impact of fasting during Ramadan on biochemical and anthropological factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and compare them with those who did not fast. This was a prospective study. It was carried out in the city of Yazd, Iran, during Ramadan of 2016. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), lipids, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and fructosamine levels before and after Ramadan were assessed on 120 diabetic patients; 60 of whom had fasting, and 60 had no intention. Fifty-four patients from the fasting group (including 34 fasters with 10- to 25-day fasting (group 1) and 20 fasters with > 25-day fasting (group 2)) and 58 patients from the non-fasting group (group 3) completed the study. This study showed that the mean BMI in three groups significantly decreased, and the highest decrement was seen in group 1 at the end of Ramadan (p value < 0.001). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased in fasting groups and decreased in the non-fasting group (p value > 0.01). Fructosamine was increased in all groups, and the highest increment was seen in group 2 after Ramadan (p value < 0.001). We observed that glycemic status and LDL-C levels worsened after Ramadan in T2DM patients, and beneficial effects of Ramadan on anthropometric factors are not limited to fasters, and other non-faster Muslims also showed weight reduction after Ramadan.

Keywords

Fasting Ramadan Diabetic Biochemical and anthropometric factors 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This was a prospective cohort study. Patients were included if they had a medical record at Yazd Medical Research Center. The study was approved by the ethics committee of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences (17/1395/100). This study included 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were evaluated before (1 week prior to the start of Ramadan) and after the Ramadan. We enrolled 120 patients with T2DM who were referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center and signed written informed consent.

References

  1. 1.
    Hackett CP, Grim BJ, editors. The global religious landscape:a report on the size and distribution of the world's major religious groups as of 20102012: Pew Research Center, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salti I, Bénard E, Detournay B, Bianchi-Biscay M, Le Brigand C, Voinet C, et al. A population-based study of diabetes and its characteristics during the fasting month of Ramadan in 13 countries. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(10):2306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmadani M, Riaz M, Fawwad A, Hydrie M, Hakeem R, Basit A. Glycaemic trend during Ramadan in fasting diabetic subjects: a study from Pakistan. Pak J Biol Sci : PJBS. 2008;11(16):2044–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saadati H, Lotfi MH, Afkhami AM. Evaluation of risk factors for type 2 diabetes in population living in city of Yazd: a case-control study. Journals of Community Health Research. 2013;2(3):154–68.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Esteghamati A, Etemad K, Koohpayehzadeh J, Abbasi M, Meysamie A, Noshad S, et al. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in association with obesity in Iran: 2005–2011. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):319–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Norouzy A, Salehi M, Philippou E, Arabi H, Shiva F, Mehrnoosh S, et al. Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body composition and nutritional intake: a prospective study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26(s1):97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Al-Hourani H, Atoum M. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan. Singap Med J. 2007;48(10):906–10.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mafauzy M, Mohammed W, Anum M, Zulkifli A, Ruhani A. A study of the fasting diabetic patients during the month of Ramadan. Med J Malaysia. 1990;45(1):14–7.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Khatib FA, Shafagoj YA. Metabolic alterations as a result of Ramadan fasting in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in relation to food intake. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(12):1858–63.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sari R, Balci MK, Akbas SH, Avci B. The effects of diet, sulfonylurea, and repaglinide therapy on clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan. Endocr Res. 2004;30(2):169–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amin ME. Pharmacists’ role in adjusting medication regimens for Muslim patients in Ramadan: the University of Wisconsin-Madison; 2013.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Uysal AR, Erdoğan M, Sahin G, Kamel N, Erdoğan G. Clinical and metabolic effects of fasting in 41 type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(11):2033–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rahmanian M, Haghighi FS, Namiranian N. Management of diabetes in Ramadan fasting. Iranian Journal of Diabetes & Obesity (IJDO). 2014;6(4).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paul AK, Khan MA, Fariduddin M. Effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometric measures and metabolic profiles among type 2 diabetic subjects. J Enam Med Coll. 2015;5(2):93–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sadiya A, Ahmed S, Siddieg HH, Babas IJ, Carlsson M. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, body composition, and dietary intake in Emiratis of Ajman (UAE) with metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2011;4:409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rohin MAK, Rozano N, Abd Hadi N, Mat Nor MN, Abdullah S, Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah M. Anthropometry and body composition status during Ramadan among higher institution learning centre staffs with different body weight status. Sci World J. 2013;2013:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Momen H, Elzouki A, Gatie J, El-Mansoury A, Tashani A. Effect of Ramadan fasting on blood glucose and serum lipid profiles in Libyan diabetic patients. J Sci Appl. 2007;1(1):14–7.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bener A, Yousafzai MT. Effect of Ramadan fasting on diabetes mellitus: a population-based study in Qatar. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2014;89(2):47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Barkia A, Mohamed K, Smaoui M, Zouari N, Hammami M, Nasri M. Change of diet, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and fatty acids during Ramadan: a controversial association of the considered Ramadan model with atherosclerosis risk. J Health Popul Nutr. 2011;29(5):486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shehab A, Abdulle A, El Issa A, Al Suwaidi J, Nagelkerke N. Favorable changes in lipid profile: the effects of fasting after Ramadan. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somaye Gholami
    • 1
  • Narjes Hazar
    • 2
  • Shima Shafiei
    • 1
  • Mozhgan Hemmati
    • 1
  • Masoud Rahmanian
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Diabetes Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.School of MedicineShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

Personalised recommendations