Predicting relationship of eating behavior, physical activity and smoking with type II diabetes and related comorbidities among Saudi citizens: cross-sectional observational study
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The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation pattern of social habits and cardiovascular risk assessment with disease history (e.g., obesity, T2DM and HPT) among free-living citizens of Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional observational study design was used to collect the data among the citizens of Saudi Arabia. Convenient sampling technique was used to contact over 1163 free-living individuals. A self-administered questionnaire containing 49 items divided into following three sections was used to measure the correlation. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the response. Sixty-seven percent (n = 725) of the respondents (male n = 419 (57.79%) vs. female n = 306 (42.21%), respectively; p > 0.01) perceived unhealthy nutritional habits. Also, a total of 785 (72.55%) participants (436 (55.54%) vs 349 (44.56%); males vs. females; p > 0.05) responded insufficient daily physical activity. Leisure time and uncontrolled eating were independently associated with BMI (S.E − 0.13, 95% CI − 1.81 to − 0.11, p = 0.035; and S.E 0.31, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45, p < 0.001, respectively). T2DM showed significant independent association with leisure time, uncontrolled eating, and the Framingham risk (S.E − 0.25, 95% CI − 1.27 to − 0.14, p = 0.022; S.E 0.49, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.97, p < 0.001, and S.E − 0.17, 95% CI − 0.87 to − 0.13, p < 0.001, respectively). Study concluded a strong inverse correlation pattern between the level of physical activity (leisure time) with BMI, T2DM, obesity, and HPT. Uncontrolled eating behavior showed significant effect on BMI, obesity, and T2DM. However, HPT was significantly associated with work time (PA) and the Framingham risk assessment score.
KeywordsPhysical inability Eating behavior Type 2 diabetes mellitus Obesity Cross-section observational study
type II diabetes mellitus
high lipid profile
body mass index
Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire
Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire
We acknowledge the efforts of the nursing staff for arranging patients’ records and managing the schedule follow-ups. We also express our gratitude to the college of pharmacy administration for continued support on administrative approvals.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol and instruments were approved by Taibah University Research Ethics committee and the Health Commission of Saudi Arabia. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Taibah University research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Participants who were interested to participate in this study were required to sign a research informed consent form. Participants, who were illiterate, acquired an impartial witness to explain the study protocol before participation.
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