Predicting relationship of eating behavior, physical activity and smoking with type II diabetes and related comorbidities among Saudi citizens: cross-sectional observational study

  • Syed Wasif GillaniEmail author
  • Mohi Iqal Mohammad Abdul
  • Irfan Altaf Ansari
  • Hisham A. Zaghloul
  • Syed Ata-ur-Rehman
  • Mirza R. Baig
Original Article


The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation pattern of social habits and cardiovascular risk assessment with disease history (e.g., obesity, T2DM and HPT) among free-living citizens of Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional observational study design was used to collect the data among the citizens of Saudi Arabia. Convenient sampling technique was used to contact over 1163 free-living individuals. A self-administered questionnaire containing 49 items divided into following three sections was used to measure the correlation. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict the response. Sixty-seven percent (n = 725) of the respondents (male n = 419 (57.79%) vs. female n = 306 (42.21%), respectively; p > 0.01) perceived unhealthy nutritional habits. Also, a total of 785 (72.55%) participants (436 (55.54%) vs 349 (44.56%); males vs. females; p > 0.05) responded insufficient daily physical activity. Leisure time and uncontrolled eating were independently associated with BMI (S.E − 0.13, 95% CI − 1.81 to − 0.11, p = 0.035; and S.E 0.31, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.45, p < 0.001, respectively). T2DM showed significant independent association with leisure time, uncontrolled eating, and the Framingham risk (S.E − 0.25, 95% CI − 1.27 to − 0.14, p = 0.022; S.E 0.49, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.97, p < 0.001, and S.E − 0.17, 95% CI − 0.87 to − 0.13, p < 0.001, respectively). Study concluded a strong inverse correlation pattern between the level of physical activity (leisure time) with BMI, T2DM, obesity, and HPT. Uncontrolled eating behavior showed significant effect on BMI, obesity, and T2DM. However, HPT was significantly associated with work time (PA) and the Framingham risk assessment score.


Physical inability Eating behavior Type 2 diabetes mellitus Obesity Cross-section observational study 



type II diabetes mellitus




high lipid profile


physical activity


body mass index


Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire


Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire



We acknowledge the efforts of the nursing staff for arranging patients’ records and managing the schedule follow-ups. We also express our gratitude to the college of pharmacy administration for continued support on administrative approvals.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval

The study protocol and instruments were approved by Taibah University Research Ethics committee and the Health Commission of Saudi Arabia. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Taibah University research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Participants who were interested to participate in this study were required to sign a research informed consent form. Participants, who were illiterate, acquired an impartial witness to explain the study protocol before participation.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syed Wasif Gillani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohi Iqal Mohammad Abdul
    • 2
  • Irfan Altaf Ansari
    • 3
  • Hisham A. Zaghloul
    • 1
  • Syed Ata-ur-Rehman
    • 4
  • Mirza R. Baig
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, College of PharmacyTaibah UniversityAl-Madinah Al MunawarrahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, College of PharmacyTaibah UniversityAl-Madinah Al MunawarrahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, College of MedicineTaibah UniversityAl-Madinah Al MunawarrahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pharmaceutics, College of PharmacyTaibah UniversityAl-Madinah Al MunawarrahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Dubai Pharmacy CollegeDubaiUnited Arab Emirates

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