Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge Test: development, psychometric evaluation, and establishing norms for Indian population

  • Meera Padhy
  • Ruth Angiel Padiri
  • Meena Hariharan
  • Suvashisa RanaEmail author
Original Article


The cornerstone of diabetes management is self-management—a set of skilled behaviors to manage one’s own illness. Education for diabetes self-management is a vital component of overall management. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge concerning the various aspects of diabetes acts as one of the barriers to achieve optimal diabetes control. The objectives of the study were to develop a test to measure the knowledge of symptoms, causes and risk factors, complications, and management of type 2 diabetes and standardize the test initially by establishing the psychometric properties and norms on an Indian clinical sample. This new test named as Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge Test (DMKT) was developed through four phases—item writing, content validation, item analysis and reliability, and establishment of validity and development of norm—involving three clinical samples (n1 = 10, n2 = 212, n3 = 268) basing on cross-sectional survey design. The DMKT consisted of 37 items having dichotomous response category that were distributed under four theoretical dimensions—symptoms (9 items), causes and risk factors (12 items), complications (11 items), and management (5 items). The reliability of the test was found to be .76. The convergent validity and norm were established. The implications and short-comings of the DMKT were discussed.


Knowledge of symptoms Knowledge of causes and risk factors Knowledge of complications Knowledge of management Convergent validity Norm 



We are thankful to Ms. Durgesh Nandinee and Ms. Kavya Chelli for their help. We extend our gratitude to the authorities of the clinics for permitting us to work with their patients. We are also thankful to all the participants for their kind and voluntary participation. Nevertheless, we are grateful to all the authors whose instruments and research findings we have referred while developing this measure and cited in our text.

Compliance with ethical standards

Before starting the study, approval was obtained from the institutional ethics committee.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Research Society for Study of Diabetes in India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Health Psychology, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioural SciencesCentral University of KarnatakaGulbargaIndia
  3. 3.Centre for Health Psychology, School of Medical SciencesUniversity of Hyderabad, Central University Campus POHyderabadIndia

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